Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 35, Issue 2B

Volume 35, Issue 2B, February 2017, Page 85-224

Effect of laser surface treatment on the some of mechanical properties of AISI 4130 steel

J.M. Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 85-90
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.2B.1

In this work the surface of an alloy of AISI 4130 steel is hardened by using CW Nd:YAG laser and then study the effect of laser surface hardening on mechanical properties such as yield strength (σy), ultimate tensile strength (σu.T.S), plasticity constant (k),strain hardening coefficient (n) , also evaluate the microstructure and microhardness during the hardening of the alloy. CW Nd:YAG laser was used to scan on the surface of samples by varying the laser beam energies (500,750,1000 mj) with travel speed 500 mm/min of the work table. There are many examinations were done for laser hardened of AISI 4130 steel such as an analysis of microstructure features by using an optical microscopy and microhardness. Also tensile test is carried out for the specimens before and after laser surface treatment. The results of this investigation showed that an improvement in mechanical properties after laser surface hardening, also microhardness decreases faraway the hardened surface toward the center of the specimen. While the microstructure examination showed that the laser energy 1000 mj lead to form fine plate martensite structure more than another energies 500 and 750 mj.

Studying of Mechanical Properties for AlSiC Composites

Z.K. Hassan; S.M. Hussen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 91-95
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138548

This search include to produce Al-SiC composites, containing two different weight percentages 25%, 50%, of SiC and sintering at three different temperatures (300,400,600) ̊C have been fabricated by powder metallurgy method. Wear,Vickers microhardness characteristics of Al–SiC composites have been tested, in Wear test has been investigated under sliding conditions and compared with those observed in pure aluminum. Wear sliding tests have been carried out using pin-on-disk wear test rate normal loads of 500 g and at constant sliding velocity of 500 rpm. While in Vickers test the load that are used 50 g, 0.49N for 15 sec.,Weight loss of samples was measured and the variation of cumulative Wear loss with increasing temperature and with SiC additives has been found for both pure aluminum and the composites. It was also observed that the Wear rate varies with normal load and found that a better values in addition 1g in SiC composites at 600̊C but lower in composites of 25% and in pure Al at other sintering temperature, on the other hands it’s found a fluctuation in (600,400,300)̊C, at 25 % at 5min, 3min.this return to the same reason of adhesive wear and its type. in Vickers micro hardness has high values for 600̊C , for both pure Al and Al SiC composite, and this fluctuation also seen in time of wear rates that be lower value in 1min., 5 min. while in 3 min. has a high value,

Arabic Texts Classification Based on Keywords Extraction Technique

S.M. kadhem; Almeer; A.Q.Abd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 96-104
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138549

Keyword is useful for a various purposes including labeling, summarizing, indexing, categorization, searching, and clustering. In this paper we will extract keywords from the Arabic text in order to classify it. The proposed system classify any Arabic text through simple statistic and linguistic approaches by extracting the keywords of the text (with their frequency that appear in the text) depending on a Date Base of a particular field (in this work we choose computer science field). This Data Base is represented using one B+ tree for keywords and the other DataBase for non-keywords. The proposed system was implemented using Visual Prolog 5.1, and after testing, it proved to be a valuable for Arabic text classification (From the viewpoint of accuracy and search time).

Nested Method for Optimizing Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication

N.M.Ghanim; M. A. Magamiss

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 105-111
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138621

The algebraic curve that attracted considerable interest in recent years is called Elliptic Curve (EC). This is due to the computational complexity of its arithmetic over a finite field. The complexity of its arithmetic operations granted EC highly interest for many applications, especially in Cryptography. The scalar multiplication plays an important role in the performance of the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC). This paper focused on optimizing the performance of this important operation, which is called elliptic curve scalar multiplication (ECSM). As known from previous works, this operation can be sped up using one of the most important representations called Mutual Opposite Form (MOF). Based on this representation, we proposed an algorithm to improve the performance of ECSM. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is enhanced in terms of computation time compared to the existing standard ECSM methods.

Improvement of Corner Detection Algorithms (Harris, FAST and SUSAN) Based on Reduction of Features Space and Complexity Time

A.A. Karim; E. F. Nasser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 112-118
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138622

The active detection for gratifying features can be a definitive pace for computer vision in different tasks. Corners become more preferable models because of their two dimensional constrain; two dimensional limitations and algorithms can be rapid to detect them. Corners in images form significant information. Elicitation corners precisely are significant for processing image data to minimize a lot of computations. This paper can be used three vastly algorithms for detection the corner in images improvement Harris, improvement FAST, and improvement SUSAN which are based on two criteria for comparison to minimize the space of interest features and runtime reduction. From that, it can conclude that the algorithm of improvement FAST was outstanding to improvement Harris and improvement SUSAN algorithms on these criteria. FAST, SUSAN and Harris algorithms for corner detected were improved by applying Haar transform and choosing an adaptive gray difference threshold. Improvement FAST, has been offered which can be exceeded the previous two algorithms, improvement Harris and improvement SUSAN in both less run time and small features space. For example, the time taken by car image is 0.0005 second to extract the features using improvement FAST algorithm, which is much less than that used by the SUSAN and Harris algorithms. Improvement Harris takes 0.0074second and SUSAN takes 0.0096 second.

Gene Expression Bcl-2 Gene in Cancer of Brest in Iraqi population

H. M. Al-Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 119-125
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138623

The breast cancer is dangerous disease in the world . Molecular methods are important and necessary to diagnose breast cancer. Many of the genes with expression change like Bcl-2 gene is specifically, coding an anti-apoptotic protein and and therefore classified as an oncogene. Determine the damage of Bcl- 2 gene as a cause of some types of cancer, such as breast cancer, leukemia, prostate cancer and lung cancer .In this study, we examined Bcl-2 expression levels in (malignant, benign and healthy) tissues of the breast .They were fifty Laboratory samples (18 cancer tumor , 12 benign and 20 marginal (non-cancer) breast tissue that diagnosed based on their information were obtained from their files and records in all patients in this study , to extract the DNA and measure the level of expression of gene under study by molecular technique of ( r –t PCR ). Expression of gene under study is higher levels in malignant group and the fold of expression was 10.00 time higher than the control group and also in the benign group the fold of expression was 2.18 that higher than the control group.The results showed the expressed gene Bcl-2 is significantly higher in the third grade of breast tumor samples with Ct (22.14) of the first grade with CT (25.63) and the second with CT (24.07). According to the results of the study that the use of molecular methods in measuring the expression of Bcl-2 gene may help to diagnose the disease and may be considered that the Bcl2 gene is molecular tool for the early detection of breast cancer

An Effective Preprocessing Step Algorithm in Text Mining Application

R. M. Hadi; S. H. Hashem; A. T. Maolood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 126-131
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138624

Text mining was a process of mining the significant information from the text documents. Any text mining system was created its process by preprocessing step; which involve tokenization, stop words removal, stemming and finally creating term frequency and inverse document frequency matrix (TF-IDF matrix). These steps provide the highest time consuming stage in knowledge discovery. The proposed method tries to build effective preprocessing step to even win area of memory space and time requirements. That by proposed a method for improved stop words removal algorithm and improved stemming algorithm based porter stemming algorithm. The proposed method is tested in two levels, first level uses only vector space model which based on used traditional stop words removal and with traditional porter stemming and the second level uses vector space model with combined features of improved stop words removal algorithm and improved stemming algorithm. The results show that using second level as effective preprocessing step for text mining application achieves good performance from reducing storage space used in memory about 10% and the processing time become faster which achieves good performance to build the final TF-IDF matrix.

A Survey Using Kano Model and Road map to issues Standard Model of e-commerce Using SPLE technique

H.H. Safi; A.K. Abbas; S.Q.AlBawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 132-143
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138649

Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) have been widely studied by many researchers and they have been used to solve different real-world applications that have more than design. However, most (SPLEs) work well only when using standard model depends on strategic of (SPLE ).Theses strategies implemented through three stages Domaine engineering, design portfolio with a road map and application engineering. Domaine engineering considered the first stage of any design depends on (SPLE) contents on some of the methods such as Feature Model Diagram (FMD), Orthogonal Variability Model (OVM) and Domain Requirements (DR).They implement by using use case diagram and find link with all of them via (OVM ).Next stage for any design depends on (SPLE) developing features that used in previously designed depending on the design new portfolio and roadmap using methods called Questionnaires and statics. In this paper, we modify and produced hybrid design model through developed all features in previous design model to producing the new portfolio and roadmap for E-commerce model depending on making a survey. The proposed new hybrid design depends on using new methods to find which one is best from features, we were used Kano model to design the questionnaire to get true evaluation results of the survey, which was conducted by 83 from academic and researcher and 129 university students of whom 45 graduate students and 84 students and about 53 interested practitioners in design and others interesting buying from the internet and e-commerce.

Improved PSO Algorithm to Attack Transposition Cipher


Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 144-149
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138650

Cryptanalysis is a complex and mathematically challenging field of study. It takes some data or message, which is called cipher text and attempt to restore its plaintext. This paper attempts to use an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) to obtain the plaintext from the transposition cipher. This improved method gives a good performance for the PSO algorithm by generating best solution from the best to avoid stability to reach to solution (key). This key is used for breaking transposition cipher.

A study of kidney Parameters Induced by Porous Silicon Nanoparticles

K. H. Jwaid; M. S. Jabir; U. M. Nayef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 150-153
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138651

Nanoparticles are a special group of materials with unique features and extensive application in diverse fields .The present work demonstrates the toxicity effect of porous silicon nanoparticalse on kidney parameter which is prepared by electrochemical etching method. We conformed the synthesis of porous silicon nanoparticles by using structures and optical properties from through scanning electron microscope techniques and measuring absorbance of color. The study of toxicity effect of these nanoparticles on the kidney parameters in laboratory animals by used five groups was studied. Injected of porous silicon nanoparticles in the intraperitoneal at concentration of 1mgkg. The results of biochemical assay (urea and creatinine) compared with the control groups, for a period of four weeks was confirmed with Histology section of kidney. Our results showed that no significant differences in levels (urea and creatinine) between the test groups when compared with controls groups. This Results indicates no toxic effect of porous silicon nanoparticles in kidney parameters

Hybrid Metaheuristic Technique Based Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing

I. A. AbdulJabbar; S. M. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 154-160
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138652

This paper presents hybrid technique using two metahueristic methods; which are simulated annealing (SA) and tabu search (TS). The aim is to exhibit the facility of adaptive memory in tabu search method to resolve the long computation times of simulated annealing metaheuristic method. This can be done by keeping the best path which is found in each iteration. As a result, the proposed hybrid technique gives the optimum solution by finding the shortest path with minimum cost when applied on travelling salesman problem (TSP) since it reduces the time complexity by finding the optimum path with a few numbers of iterations when compared with SA and TS.

Spectroscopic Characteristics For Rhodamine C Tincture in Diverse Solvents

K. S. Rida; J. A. Kathum; S. I. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 161-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138657

The article included calculating the quantum aptitude and Radiative emission probability, Radiative life time, and fluorescence life time of Rhodamine C with fixed concentration (5*10-5 mol/l) in some solvent ( Distilled water, Methanol, Ethanol, 2-Propanol, Dichloromethane, Ethyl acetate, Dimethyl formamide) which differ in their polarity.
There is a slight change in the crest of the absorption which showed up at wavelength (555-560 nm), the red shift was about (16-23 nm) of RC dye in different solvent.

Design and Simulate a New Defense System of Free Electron Laser DSFEL

Thair A. Al-Aish; Rasheed L. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 166-172
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138658

As a result of rapid progress in the development of offensive weapons, it became necessary to build up an effective defense system against these technically advanced weapons. In this paper, it has been designed and simulates a new defense system of free-electron laser DSFEL with important advantages capable of destroying air targets (static or mobile) within a range of 70 km from the ground level. The proposed defense system consists of three main units a free electron Laser, optical lenses and control system. Numerous parameters were computed, beginning from the specification and quality of free electron Laser and atmosphere attenuation affecting on the laser beam, in addition to the quality of the target should be destroyed. The results of simulations show that the possibility of destroying any target with high precision despite the large attenuation that occurs to the laser beam such as absorption, scattering, turbulence, and reflection. It is clear through simulations that the original power of laser beam will be significantly reduced as a result of numerous and varied losses as they pass through the atmosphere. But as a final result, the laser can be used as an effective weapon to destroy long-range targets.

Certain Classes of Univalent Functions Associated With Deferential Operator

M.S. A.Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 173-177
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138659

The main objectives of this research work is to present and investigate the
certain subfamily of Bazilevic functions by making use the differential operator
which generalize of many operators presented by several authors, we have discussed
and estimated on the coefficient bounds for this subfamily of functions introduced
here and derived some interesting properties. In addition, Consequence of the results
known or new is indicated through this work.

Preparation of ZnO like–Nanoflower by Hydrothermal Method

K.S. Shaker; S.S. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 178-181
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138660

ZnO nanostructure were prepared by decomposing zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2using hexanaldehydeat PH 9 and 105 °C for 10 h. Size of ZnOnano can be like flower or rod controlled by pH of the aqueous solution. Nanostructure of ZnO has been studied bys (SEM), (XRD) and (FTIR). Synthesized Zinc oxide nanostructures possess a hexagonal quartzite temple. ZnO powders were measured by Also using Zeta potential and Particle Size Analyzers and size distribution of the ZnO powder using particle size analyzer (NanoBrook 90Plus Particle Size Analyzer) .

Information Hiding Using Geographic Information System (GIS) Vector File

R.F. Hassan; M.S. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 182-188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138666

There are different techniques for securing data like cryptography and information hiding (steganography and watermarking) which has received more attention and faced many challenges. In this paper, an efficient digital steganography method has been proposed, where the Geographic Information System (GIS) files used as a cover media. This method depends on hiding text file in a map vector coordinate using ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) Shape file, which stores the geometry of the digital features as sets of vector, coordinates. The method is based on changing the value of unspecific order bits depending on an Input location. Since we are interested in maximizing capacity and ensure robustness requirements. Exploiting the advantage of double percentage number capacity in the 2Dimension vector file was one of the main goals of this research. A Steganography techniques requirement was satisfied since changing maps did not raise any suspicion, while they do not alter the original data content.

Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles by Chemical Reaction Method at Different Reaction Temperatures and the Study of their Antibacterial Activity

K.S. Shaker; M.A. Muhi; M.Sh. Khalaf; H.L. Mansour

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138668

It is found silver nanoparticles have strong antibacterial activity due to use in medical applications. It can be tuned antibacterial activity through control the shape and size of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. This article, silver nanoparticles were produced as different sizes at different reaction temperatures by chemical reaction method. Morphology and structure have been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Results indicate that silver nanoparticles have different sizes in range of (30- 97.26 nm). Additionally, antibacterial activity test against the pathogens, namely Escherichia colis hows effective inhibitory activity.

Effect of Deposition Temperature on Optical and Crystallographic Properties of CsI Thick Films Deposited using Spray Pyrolysis

J.H. Khulaef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 195-203
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138670

A deposited layer of CsI has been prepared at different substrate
temperatures using spray pyrolysis technique. The X Ray diffraction of CsI
films reveals special pattern peaks (110), (200), (211), (220), (310) and (321).
From transmission spectra we calculated the energy gap of CsI films which
increase with increasing deposition temperature for direct transition is

Comprehensive collection for Arabic characters and numbers written by hand

S.A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 204-210
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138672

An Optical Character Recognition system for Arabic language should recognize Arabic handwritten words. However, it is difficult to find a freely accessible and comprehensive database of all Arabic words that can be employed for this purpose. Therefore, it is more efficient to divide the Arabic words into sub-words or characters. As there is no comprehensive Arabic handwritten character database that is accessible free of charge, interested researchers can utilize the database developed as a part of this work in recognition system training and output testing.In the present paper, a database is presented containing scanned images of 700 Arabic handwritten characters, Hindi numbers used in Arabic countries, and some special characters utilized in Arabic alphabet, along with their different positions (e.g., standalone, initial, medial and terminal), different sizes, styles and font colors. The aim is to provide sufficient samples for all character shapes for software training, resulting in greater accuracy in the recognition phase.These forms were filled by students of the Applied Sciences College, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq and were scanned at the 200, 300, and 600 dpi resolution. A graphical user interface (GUI) software environment is employed to make the manipulation of the created database easier, and provide many image processing functions that are allowed to be built the database easier

C-reactive protein as a marker for cancer and poising thyroid gland

M. D. Kamel; A. A. Mohammed; A. A. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 211-214
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138675

This study was aimed to investigate the possibility of using C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker for 11 types of cancer include (Ovarian, Bone, Pancreas, Liver, Lung, Cervical, Head, Kidney, Breast, Stomach and Prostate cancer) and poising thyroid gland disease by qualitative test for CRP. 50 serum samples from health human and about 150 serum samples were examined from patients with cancer and poising thyroid gland disease (aged between 14 and 85 years old). Qualitative test was done to detect the presence of CRP in the patient’s serum. The qualitative test showed that all normal samples 50 (100%) give negative result for the presence of CRP in the serum. While 116 (89.9%) patients give negative result and 13 (10.1%) patients with cancer diseases give positive result to presence of CRP in the serum. And also 21 (100%) patients with poising thyroid gland disease give positive result to CRP. According to the results of this study C-reactive protein consider non-specific marker for all types of cancer diseases but can be used as marker for bone cancer. On the other hand CRP which demonstrated that, it a useful marker for patients with poising thyroid gland.

Levels of some trace elements and other metals in many brands of cosmetic products in Iraq markets

Sh. H. Khazaal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2B, Pages 221-224
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.138678

Seventy five samples of care products that of different classes (facial blush, dried powder for face, and shadows of eye) analyzed to their contents of five elements (Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb) in our work. The work has been done by using atomic absorption and combinations, digestion of acid. The concentrations of metals and elements in part per million for facial blush were Co (10.2 ± 2.7), Cu (0.038 ± 0.01), Ni (24.6 ± 7.1), Cd (4.90 ± 1.93) and pb (75.1 ± 13.1), for dried powder for face were Co (213 ± 89.65), Cu (0.137 ± 0.02), Ni (24.6 ± 7.1), Cd (5.1 ± 1.82 ) and Pb (295.1 ± 101.2 ), and for eye shadows were Co (15.1 ± 2.7), Cu (0.038 ± 0.01), Ni (32.7 ± 5.1), Cd (5.40 ± 1.12) and Pb (17.9 ± 3.51). Levels of analyzed elements are not seen to be humans toxic, time of exposure might be a cause of elements accumulation in the body and cause diseases. At the above levels.