Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758



Potential of Alfalfa for Use in Phytoremediation of Soil Polluted with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Sara M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.1

Remediation technology is a promising technique decrease pollutant like hydrocarbons from the environment. An experimental work was made at green house of University of Technology in order to study the effect of crude oil on the vegetate growth and to measure the decrement which happened on shoot height, germination rate and the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), which result, by this phytoremediation technique. The samples of soil were measured for TPH reduction and removal by Horiba model (oil content analyzer) OCMA–350. Five doses were used in this experiment (0 control, 10x103, 30 x103, 50 x103, 75 x103) (mg crude oil / kg soil). The polluted soil used in this study appeared to be a harmful environment for alfalfa plants, leading to serious adverse effects on alfalfa germination and growth. Seed germination is known to be a sensitive process affected by environmental factors like the presence of soil pollutants.

Studying the Effect of Ambient Temperature on Wastewater Degradation in Simulated Self-Purification Aerated Sewer System

Tala A. Al-Khateeb; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Kareem K. Al-Jumaili

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 5-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.2

Designing and operating a simulated gravity sewer system had been accomplished in the current research. The design had been provided with aeration system in order to deliver oxygen to microorganisms presented in sewage water. The system had been used in three different seasons in order to investigate the ambient temperature effect on treating wastewater. The results revealed that ambient temperature had a significant role in organic waste degradation powered by the presence of air into sewage pipes and level tanks. Maximum degradation measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand removal (RCOD) was recorded to be 14.28 under 30 OC ambient temperature and 8 hr of treating time. The results recorded from the current system seemed to be promising in terms of self-purification ability of the transporting sewer system.

Green Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Laser Ablation Technique

Azhar M. Haleem; Ruaa H. Abbas; Abdulhadi Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.3

Titanium dioxide nanaoparticles (TiO2 NPs) were prepared using laser ablation technique by ablation of titanium target immersed in distilled de-ionized water (DDW) by Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 1064 nm, 1 Hz, (490) mJ and 700 pulse. UV-visible spectrophotometer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the optical and morphological properties of prepared nanoparticles, respectively. The absorption spectrum of TiO2 NPs was at ultraviolet-region (214 nm) due to Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), and the particles size distribution of the prepared nanoparticles ranged from 30 to 100 nm. The antifungal activity of
TiOR2R NPs was carried out against Microsporum canis. TiOR2R NPs showed
significant inhibitory activity especially at high concentrations and high
exposure times with microbial pathogenesis.

The Use of Photocatalytic Cementitious Coatings to Reduce Nitric Oxide from Ambient Air

ayat Hussian; Riyad H. Al Anbari; Maan S. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 17-21
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.4

Titanuim dioxide represents a novel photocatalyst material that can be used in different ways for air pollutants remediation. Air pollutants that are spreaded in the surrounding air could be transferred to more complex materials, especially in the presence of sunlight. To study the possibility for the reduction of these pollutants a laboratory tests have been conducted on the coated specimen substrate by using nitric oxide as pollutant gas, and there efficiency in gas removal was monitored with time. Two different particle sizes of TiO2 have been used; micro with particle size range between 150-200 nm and nano PC105 with particle size 20+ 5 nm, both are 100% anatse. Two coatings methods were applied on cementitious substrate material dip and spray to study the photochemical reaction with TiO2, aqueous solution prepared by dispersing 3g/L of TiO2 with deionized water and ethanol. Results show that using nano and micro size TiO2 aqueous solutions were effective in the removal of nitric oxide
with variations in the time consumed for the removal. Using nano aqueous solution in both dip and spray methods gives the same removal efficiency reached to 98.85% ,while using micro aqueous solution the removal reached to 98.08% when dip method was used and 87.69% when spray method was used.

The Role and Important of Internet of Things in Building Sustainable City

Nahla F. Alwan; Muna K. AL-Nuaimi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 22-29
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.5

Every year many people migrate from country to city to live there. This will load a big pressure on the whole living in the city, Baghdad city also suffer from this problem in addition to other found problems like energy consumption , waste accumulate , Traffic congestion, noise, environmental pollution. To offer a good sustainable future living to population without any damage to environment and to solve many problems , one can use internet of things which is the connection network of the things especially with high spread of networks now which Internet of things based on it .the purpose of this research is to explain internet of things (IoT) and its role in solving many problems in the city , by using of the data collect by internet of things and to respond in real time to know problems and to enable planning and building city in a valuable sustainable way . As well as to explain the concept and models of smart city and its relationship to the sustainable city and Internets of things. In addition, to demonstrate in a simplified way the possibility of using the Internet of things to solve the problems in the Baghdad city and to raise the standard of life of its inhabitant is in a sustainable smart way. Taking this in the strategic planning of Baghdad city.

Potential of Ethylhexyl Ester Oil to Enhance Drilling of HTHP Wellbores

Lina Jassim; Robiah Yunus; Suraya Abdul Rashid; Amar Salleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 30-37
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.6

Ester-based drilling fluids have been accepted as an alternative to mineral oils in drilling applications and currently being utilized to drill oil or gas wells around the world. However, the ester-based fluids have deficiencies that limit its ability to carry and transfer drilled solids, stabilize the wellbore and drill the extended reach wells. Several approaches have been considered to overcome the ester limitations. Thus, the main aim of this study is to overcome these limitations by developing the high performance ester-based green drilling fluids for deep and ultra-deep wells. The low-pressure technology was applied in the synthesis of the ester to minimize ester hydrolysis and thermal instability issues during the drilling operation. The rapid ester synthesis involved the 2-ethylhexanol and vegetable oil-based methyl esters C12 in the presence of sodium methoxide as the catalyst. Performances of 2-EH ester-based drilling fluids behaviour was assessed under different hot rolling temperatures (121, 149, 177, and 200oC) for 16 hours. The rheological properties in terms of low shear rate of 6 and 3 rpm were superior which verified that these ester-based muds could be used in deep and ultra-deep wellbores without sagging, pipe sticking and unbalanced wellbore problems.

Environmental Impact Assessment for Brick Factory in Baghdad, Iraq

Saadi M.D. Al-Nuzal; Salih A. Al-Bakri; Sara D.A. Zankana

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 38-48
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.7

The environmental and social impacts of bricks factory based on the information's collected from old brick factories in Al-Nahrawan. This information includes water, air and soil sample analysis, community questionnaire, climate and topography of the region and standards to create model for modern brick factory. Practically the results of the analysis of soil pH, exceed the determinants of the WHO, while some cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cr3+, Ni2+ , carbon content, and TDS were within the limit. High values for volatile organic compounds, PMs, TSP, NO2 and SO2 resulting from the combustion of the fuel used in the manufacturing process during the four months were the outside the Iraqi determinants. The results of the questionnaire analysis devolve toward the creation of bricks factories with a modern and environment friendly technology. The study presented numbers of recommendations for modern brick factories and showed the extent of the community's awareness contaminants posed by traditional brick plants. Alternatives and environmental monitoring plan for the project so as to ensure the protection of the surrounding environment.

Research Paper

Ecological Risk Assessment of Chromium Pollution in the Soil of Industrial Area within Baghdad City

Rawnaq S. Mahdi; Athmar A.M. AL-Mashhady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 49-53
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.8

Thirty-five soil samples were collected from the Tanning Factory Industrial District within Baghdad city to investigate the soil pollution occur through four directions of the tanning plant. The soil samples exhibited high concentrations of Cr than the reported values of worldwide mean of unpolluted soils. The geoaccumulation index showed that the soil samples were moderately polluted by Cr at the north of the factory while the soil sample showed extremely polluted at the south and east of the factory. Moreover, the soil samples collected from west of the factory were strongly polluted. The result of the calculated enrichment factor (64.52-1075.22) showed to extremely high enriched and suggesting a significant role of anthropogenic pollution because of various industrial activities by the Tanning Factory.

Ultrasonic Technique in Treating Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Najem A. Al-rubaiey; Mohammed G. Al-Barazanjy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 54-62
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.9

Electrocoagulation Treatment can be considered as a favorable tool for the removal of many pollutants of various forms of wastewater. These pollutants may include the removal of colloidal, the breaking-up of emulsions and heavy metals. This process consists of the disintegration of the anodes (usually iron or aluminum), exciting the creation of coagulant mixtures in wastewater. That will aid to coagulate contaminants and generate bubbles in favor of mixing and elimination of solids suspension by flotation. Recently, the arrangement of using this technique with other treatment tools has turned out to be an interesting subject leading to an improvement in the removal efficiency of the treatment. In this study, a combined treatment of electrocoagulation and ultrasound has been applied to treat three most common wastewaters in oil industry. The ultrasound-electrocoagulation removal efficiencies for the removal of oil, suspended bentonite and zinc have been evaluated here. In this work, a synthetic wastewater would be treated using electrocoagulation technique to reduce turbidity caused by pollutants. This process has been done in a batch reactor equipped with aluminum/iron electrodes with and without agitation. The effects of one of the most important parameter, i.e. applied voltage on turbidity have been studied. In addition, the effect of using ultrasonic has been also evaluated. It was found when ultrasonic used with electrocoagulation, the turbidity increased for suspended bentonite and oily wastewaters and an improvement in removal efficiency for the heavy metals pollutants. The results were compared and discussed.

Seasonal Variation of Residual Aluminum Concentration in Drinking Water

Layla L. Alwan; Ayat Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 63-70
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.10

Data for aluminum concentration in Baghdad raw and drinking water have been taken from Baghdad Mayoralty for the period of the year (2005-2006) and for six water treatment plants (Al-Karkh, East Tigris, Al-Wathba, Al-Karama, Al-Qadisia and Al-Dora). The available data were analyzed by using statistical programs like (spss, statistica, grapher and excel) .Relation with water quality parameters was obtained like relation with pH and temperature. From the study the pH value was found to be ranged between (7.45-7.85) in supplied water for minimum aluminum residual. From the contour plot results show that an equation has been concluded which connect concentration with pH and temperature. Seasonal variation was also studied; maximum concentration found to be in summer season, at Al-Karama and Al-Wathba water treatment plants concentrations were constant during the period of the study. Comparison between water treatment plants was also made, Al-Qadisia and Al-Karkh water treatment plants have the best control conditions, aluminum concentrations were found to be within the Iraqi drinking water quality standards (0.2 mg/l).

Analytical Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Bismuth Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Laser Ablation Technique

Abdul Hadi K. Judran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 71-81
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.11

Bismuth nanoparticles were synthesized using laser ablation technique by focusing solid bismuth target in distilled deionized water by 1064 nm and 532 nm laser radiations generated by Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser, respectively. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The XRD pattern of the synthesized sample was indexed as. UV–Vis spectrophotometer indicated that the peak of absorption spectra of bismuth nanoparticles located in UV-region (230 nm) and increased towards IR region with increase laser energy and laser wavelength. SEM and TEM exhibited spherical shape of bismuth nanoparticles with decrease in particles size with decreasing laser wavelength. The antibacterial activity was tested against Enterobacter and Proteus (gram-negative bacteria) and Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria). Synthesized bismuth nanoparticles exhibited inhibitory effect on both bacteria strains with best selectivity against Enterobacter and Proteus (gram-negative bacteria).

Design a Gray Water Treatment System for a Virtual Building Working by Solar Energy

Kheria M. Essa; Hashim A. Mahdi; Mohammed H. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 79-85
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.12

This work has showed that gray water can be used in irrigation with great success. It includes the explanation of how water recycling will save water for irrigation and agriculture use, reduce the costs of constructing purification plants, and add natural filters to the environment. It also aspires to invite companies to reduce the proportion of phosphate and other harmful substances in the composition of soap. In addition, it is possible to reduce the amount of suspended solids in a gray water by installing filters on the washing machines themselves, so that the volume of problems in the plankton is reduced at the refineries. It was found that the decrease in the consumption and rationalization of electric energy was observed for other purposes using the solar cell system, which is considered as a source of power supply system.

Preparation, Characterization and Utilization of Polyacrylamid-Kaolin Composite in the Removal of Nickel Ions From Water

Mahmood M. Barbooti; Raghad H. Hilal; Balkees D. Al-Dabbagh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 86-93
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.13

A composite material of polymeric matrix Polyacrylamid (PAM) that is reinforced by a certified clay mineral of the Iraqi kaolinite at several weight ratios (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) was prepared by mixing the polymer water solution with the clay followed by hand molding method. Some of the mechanical properties of the prepared composite such as tensile strength, impact and hardness Shore A were studied to improve the mechanical capability to be as a sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from water.The results showed an improvement in the mechanical properties as the kaolin content was increased. The powdered material was evaluated as a sorbent for nickel ions from aqueous solution using batch conditions. Experimental design (Box- Wilson) system was applied to determine the optimum working conditions such as composite amount, pH and contact time. Results proved reasonable adsorption efficiency and relatively high adsorption capacity of the composite towards the Ni ions removal of from water. The optimum conditions were sorbent amount of 10.0 g/l, pH = 7, and contact time of 100 min.

Optimization of Economic and Environmental Perspectives for sustainable Product Design and Manufacturing

Luma A.H. Al-Kindi; Hala A. Al_Zuheri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 94-102
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.14

Growing environmental concerns, coupled with public pressure and stricter regulations, are fundamentally impacting the way companies design and launch new products across markets. Companies are recognizing that implementing design and manufacturing for the environment in their product development process, provides opportunities for both improving the environmental aspects of a product and for enhancing the product competitiveness. Therefore, considering concurrently economic and environmental perspectives for decision-making during early stages of design and manufacturing are considered crucial to the product design process. In this paper, taking into account these perspectives, a framework in design and manufacturing of a new product is presented, using genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal values of performance measures.The combined sustainability index (CSI) is used as an informal measure for identifying the decision variables of a maximally sustainable design and manufacturing method for a new product. The proposed framework has been applied to a case study on a bottle opener design and its manufacturing processes. As a result of this case study, the product sustainability index can be used in order to