Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 36, Issue 6A

Volume 36, Issue 6A, June 2018

Optimum Site Selection for Groundwater wells using Integration between GIS and Hydrogeophysical Data

Nadia ahmed Aziz; Raghad H. Hasan; Zaidoon T. Abdulrazzaq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 596-602
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.1

This paper aim to select the best site to drill a groundwater wells by using of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool for decision-making. The study conducted in Fadak farm in Bahr Al-Najaf which is located west and southwest of Najaf city, and extends more than (40 km) away from it, to drill a new wells for irrigations usages. The optimal location selected depending on the available hydrogeophysical data includes resistivity, depth, thickness and transmissivity of aquifer. The weighted factor maps generated for the evidence layers were given weights depending on the significance of each parameter, these parameters were integrated in GIS to precisely to find the preferable sites. Finally, region was divided in to three classes; good medium, and bad according to the importance of each input factors using an overly combing method.

Metal Flow Control in Producing the Non Symmetrical Parts in Deep Drawing Process

Kariem M. Younis; Adil SH. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 603-611
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.2

the quality of the cups drawn in the deep drawing process are secured by the rate of metal flow into the die cavity, efficiently control on the metal flow can reduce and eliminate a lot of defects such as wrinkling, tearing and earing especially in the square deep drawing due to the non-uniform stresses induced along die cavity. This control is obtained using a restraining force supplied by blank holder tool or draw beads or both. Therefore this research focuses on the study these parameters numerically and experimentally. Ansys software based on finite element method was used to model and analyze the influence of blank holder gap and draw bead parameters in the forming process. Appropriate number of the experiments were done to compare and verify the results obtained in the numerical simulation.

Analytical Comparison on Inductive Wireless Power Transfer System for Biomedical Devices

Suhad H. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 612-619
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.3

This paper presents a comparative analysis for the four basic topologies of inductive link wireless power transmission, thereby allowing designers to select the most appropriate topology according to the requirements of the application. Wireless energy transfer systems applied for diagnostic or monitoring signals in biomedical devices to eliminate the needs for tethering wires or implantable batteries. Inductive link studied as main technique in wireless power transmission for biomedical devices. In various applications, the maximum delivered power and maximum efficiency of an inductive link system are two important factors to be considered. The efficiency expression for power transfer of the four topologies (series – series, parallel – series, parallel –parallel, series-parallel) has been derived. For biomedical devices, theoretically the series – series topology has been identified as the most suited due to its independency on the coupling coefficient however, series-parallel topology is widely used in practice. The circuits have been simulated using ADS simulator of keysight technology at a resonant frequency of 13.56MHz.

The Relationship between Data Transfer Rate and Distance in Power Networks Modems

Salih H. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 620-627
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.4

With the rapid growth of communication networks, reliable and economical communication systems are needed and can be implemented in buildings. PLC uses electrical wiring to transmit information and provides high-speed and cheap data communications, such as home networks and Internet access. PLC is a hostile environment for communication, making communication signals spread difficult and experiencing significant challenges such as noise, attenuation and interference. This research focus on the challenges of communications via power lines such as distance and stability. Performance factors are tested and studied through the actual application of communication networks by connecting modems and computers in the network via power sockets to test the impact of distance on information transmission. The low data transfer rate when increasing the distance was clear, which means that the data transfer is inversely proportional to the distance, there was also a difference in stability when actual data are transferred and in the case of non-actual data transfer, as described later in the practical part. In order to reduce the effect of long distances and to overcome attenuation requires the use of high-speed modems and implements advanced modulation technique such as OFDM that applied in the PLC systems.

Suggested Methods to Solve the Coils Misalignment for the Biomedical Implants

Saad Mutashar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 628-632
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.5

One of the major problems of the inductive coupling link in the biomedical implantable devices is the misalignment between coils. This paper produces two simple suggested methods to avoid and reduce the misalignment between two coils. The first one is to split the implanted coil into two identical coils with 450 μH of inductance where the external coil was equal to them in inductance ~ 900μH.  The results show that the received powers are constant and compensated by one of the coils, which provides a stable power at the implant. The second proposed suggestion is to use two separated identical coils situated in the center angles outside the human skin. The transmitting RF power of the both coils has a same resonance frequency and received with a single small implant coil, which sums the received RF signals where the amplitudes are double. The mathematical analysis of the second suggestion is introduced. 

Effect of Current and Duty Factor for Different Electrode Shapes on Material Removal Rate in EDM

Shukry H. Aghdeab; Nagham G. Ghazy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 633-640
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.6

This paper discusses the performance of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process by changing the bottom shape of the electrode, including two stages: designing the electrodes by turning process then the resulted electrodes were used to machine the workpiece by EDM. The effect of electrode shape on material removal rate (MRR) has been investigated for material of CK 60 carbon steel for workpiece and material of brass for electrode. The shapes of the electrode bottom were flat, conical (with 90º apex angle) and round (with 8 mm radius) of constant diameter electrode of 16 mm. Experiments were repeated for three current values of (10, 20 and 42 A) and three duty factor values of (0.4, 0.8, and 1). The results of experiments showed the main effect of current and duty factor on MRR. From experimental work, it is found that for most of experiments flat electrode gives highest MRR as compared to the two other shapes. A mathematical model was developed by factorial design to predict the values of MRR for different electrode shapes, currents, and duty factors by the Minitab Statistical Software (MSS).

Effect of Particle Size on Mechanical Properties of the Recycling Compact Disks Reinforced Epoxy

Shayma J. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 641-645
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.7

The recycling of CDs or DVDs (compact disks) as a filler in polymer composites can be used in many engineering applications such as electrical, automobile, and building applications. In the present paper, composite materials were prepared of epoxy resin reinforced with three different particles size (600˂d˂850, 200˂d˂600, d˂200 μm) of recycling of CDs or DVDs (a very thin aluminum layer is used to record information). Hand lay-up technique was conducted to produce composite material samples. Different types of tests, such as tensile, bending, impact, and hardness were applied on these samples. The mechanical characteristics of the composite samples were analyzed. The finding observed that smaller chopped of CDs or DVDs reinforced epoxy had better tensile, bending, hardness, and impact properties.

Influence of Fracture Parameter on the Shear Lips for 080M40 Carbon Steel in Charpy-v Impact Resistance at Different Temperatures

Thaer F. ALSultan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 646-651
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.8

This article examines the correlation between shape of shear lips and temperature change. Impact toughness properties of Standard Charpy-V samples are evaluated at different temperatures for analysis of the energy of fracture of specimens (080M40 Medium Carbon Steel Z3 & Z7 treatment codes). Shear lips are a characteristic sign of the influence of the meso-level mechanisms on the processes of deformation and failure of the material, which is one of the most important property for extending components service life. Therefore, it is important to know the failure of the materials before choosing these steels for producing different machine parts. The 080M40 Medium Carbon Steel (alike to SAE/AISI 1040) is largely used as a machine component in the heat-treated state (tempered and hardened conditions). It has been used eighteen models of specimens, half of them were Z3 treatment while the other half were treated with (Z7) and then examined. In this study, it had been found impact toughness curves at 26, -12, and -38 °C are not similar. The results showed that lowering the rate of temperatures will decrease relatively impact resistance for the 080M40 Carbon Steel by 42% percentage and causes a decrease in the turning angle of shear lips comparative to the longitudinal axle of the samples. An increase tempering treatment from 300 Co to 680 Co was improved dynamic fracture appearance the metal by 63% because that them lowered distortion of the surface structure specimens had been by blisters on the upper shelf region of shear lip.

Study Compression and Impact Properties of PMMA Reinforced by Natural Fibers Used in Denture

Jawad K. Oleiwi; Sihama I. Salih; Hwazen S. Fadhil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 652-655
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.9

The fracture in dentures prepared from acrylic resin occurs frequently during the accidental damage or service through heavy occlusal force [1]. Impact failures usually occur out of the mouth as a result of accidental dropping due to cleaning, coughing or sneezing or a sudden blow to the denture [2]. This paper is focused on the effect of natural fibers on the mechanical properties of PMMA by changing two parameters (content of fibers and length of fibers). Fibers were treated with alkaline solution to improve the interfacial adhesion. Composite specimens were prepared by using hand lay-up method. The results were showed that the increasing the weight fraction of both fibers lead to increase compression strength and decrease impact strength of composite specimens. While, increasing fiber length of both fibers lead to decrease compression strength and increase impact strength of the composite specimens. The largest value obtained for bamboo specimens at (2mm) fiber length and (9wt. %) and reach (530 MPa.). The main goal of this research is studying the impact and compression properties of PMMA reinforced by natural fibers (siwak and bamboo) by varying length and concentration of both kinds of fibers.

Evaluation and Improvement Performance of a Boiler in a Thermal Power Plant Using Artificial Neural Network

Hosham S. Anead; Khaliid F. Sultan; Raheel J. Abd-Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 656-663
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.10

This research aims to avoid damage in power plant boiler steam generation by using Artificial Neural Network techniques (ANN) to improve the boiler performance. The training and testing using ANN by Back Propagation (BP) algorithm. The inputs to the neural network such factors which include air fuel ratio, water level, flame, gas, pressure and temperature. Control of the optimum input variables represent the output of the neural network. Experimental data is obtained by using an industrial boiler operating at AL-Dura power plant.the method of control by ANN is off – line ,the information of boiler taken from real plant and applied in matlab program for training ANN to taken right decision for control of boiler. ANN results were used in the control of thermal parameters based on the software program Matlab\simulink and showed that the maximum deviation between experimental data is less than 0.01 from the predicted results of the neural network in comparison to the results with modeling of the match at High Rate with actual power plant. It is recommend that Artificial Neural Network techniques (ANN) can be used to predicate and optimization the performance of a power plant and many problem can be solve in engineering applications.

A Comparison Study of Underwater and Land Flexible Manipulators

Mohammed J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 664-671
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.11

New results for experimental comparison of flexible underwater and land manipulator have studied in this research. A new experimental rig and test basin have designed to present the manipulators behavior. Several electronic devices used to capture the data that relates with land and underwater manipulators. Experimental parts have consisted on studying of hub-angle and vibration of end-point as in-line forces affection under static and moving waters conditions as a distributed flow speeds. The experimental outcomes appeared that the in-line forces influence on land manipulator case is more than the underwater manipulator. The outcomes revealed that angular displacement influence and vibration at the end-point of the land manipulator is unlike with underwater manipulator at disturbance cases about 80% and 59% for the first amplitude respectively while, very few vibration has been recorded for underwater manipulator behavior at static and moved waters after first amplitude compared with land manipulator.

Fatigue Life and Surface Hardening Investigation of Aluminum Shot Peening Process

Kayser A. Ameen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 672-676
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.12

Two different tests are used in order to analyze the shot peening foraluminum 6061-T6 alloys. Stress amplitude versus fatigue life (S-N curves) are established experimentally using different shot peening ball size (three diameters of balls are used in this paper are 1.5, 3, and 3.5 mm). Also the hardening via Vickers hardnessis evaluated due to shot peening experimentally and by ANSYS software, the three dimensional finite element model of a square plate shot by ball is demonstrates the application of shot peened of hardening surface.The influences of the ball’s diameter on the hardening and S-N curves are studied. The results showed that the fatigue strength is increased when increasing the ball diameter. The higher strength was obtained when using the ball diameter of (3.5 mm) compared to the other diameters (1.5 and 3 mm). Good agreement of hardening results is evident between experimental and Ansys results with average discrepancy 3.6%

Speed Reference Tracking for Separately Excited DC Motor Based ANFIS and Hysteresis Current Control Techniques

Omar T. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 680-690
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.13

In this work, a closed loop control system has designed to control the speed of separately excited direct current motor (SEDCM) using Fuzzy (Mamdani and Sugeno) and an Adaptive Neuro - Fuzzy techniques (ANFIS). The action of these control techniques is to produce the reference armature current that has fed to the hysterics current controller (HCC) that produces the required gating signal to a Buck chopper .Different load conditions has been applied to the motor to obtain many mode of operation, the speed held constant at the required references values using both fuzzy (Mamdani-type and Sugeno-type) and ANFIS techniques. The results has collected and compered with a classical PID controller using MATLAB/Simulink. Step response for the speed has drawn and the control parameters for this response have evaluated. According to the results, the Mamdani fuzzy controller technique is better than as compared with the other controllers. There are many applications for this plant such as production process that need to fill or Packaging any product or used in the autopilot channels. The new goal for this proposed system is to get robust speed controllers that track the speed at any mode of operation using three artificial intelligent techniques.

Effect of Nano BN Addition on the Properties of an Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite

Fadhal A. Hashim; Niveen J. Abdulkader; Nibras S. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 691-695
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.14

In the present work, the wear rate and hardness of recycled Aluminum alloy based metal matrix composite that reinforced with nano Boron Nitride with (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) weight percentage with 33 nm particle size were evaluated. A stir casting process was applied to fabricate composite the mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the fabricated composite were evaluated through the hardness and wear test. The results indicate that the value of hardness increased and wear rate decreased with increasing the BN percentage due to high surface area to weight ratio for nanoparticles.

Parametric Optimization of WEDM in Machining HSS (8X200)

Athraa M.S. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 696-702
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.15

Nontraditional machining processes are used for machining too hard, brittle and strong conductive materials. The aim of this research is to achieve an economic and efficient machining process in machining HSS by using wire cut machine. Experimental investigations were conducted on WEDM with using different machining parameters such as (pulse duration (μs), pulse interval (μs), Servo feed and Servo voltage (V)). The experiments were designed according to DOE, which is done by using Taguchi design parameter method to investigate the optimum machining parameters, which gives the best values for MRR and CS in order to achieve an economic and efficient machining process. The results obtained from the experimental work show that the optimum values of MRR and CS are obtained with the best values of Servo voltage (V), pulse duration (μs), pulse interval (μs), Servo feed and which they are presented with (A1, B3, C2 and D3) which they are equal to (20 v, 120 μs, 35 μs, and 450 mm/min).