Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758



Production of Lightweight Clay Bricks Using Polymer Wastes

basil salah mohammed; Sadiq N. Al-Ebrahimy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 823-831
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.1

In this study, different percentages (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% by weight of the soil) of chopped polymeric (plastic bottles with maximum particle size 2.36 mm and 1.18 mm in addition to rubber tires of 0.6 mm max particle size) wastes are incorporated with soil to produce lightweight clay bricks, to find the optimum percentage satisfying the requirements of bricks grade C using for non-structural walls (partitions).The effects of different types and percentages of the polymeric wastes on firing shrinkage, density, water absorption, compressive strength and thermal conductivity of the fired bricks were studied. Results indicate that it is possible to incorporate not more than 8% of chopped rubber tires or not more than 6% of chopped bottles to the clay soil to produce lightweight fired clay bricks satisfying the compressive strength and water absorption requirements for grade C of bricks (used for partitions) according to the Iraqi specification IQS 25/1988, in addition to reducing the thermal conductivity by 13-17% which is desirable as it will reduce the energy required for heating and cooling. Also, found that the size of the incorporated particles of plastic wastes in clay, used for bricks manufacturing, did not have a significant effect on the different studied properties of bricks. In addition to, the incorporation of chopped rubber tires, having smaller particles size and more sphere particles shape, produce fired clay bricks with more homogeneous pores distribution and smaller size compared with clay brick incorporating chopped plastic wastes having flaky shape and larger particles size, leading to produce clay brick with higher density and strength, with lower water absorption. As a total results, the incorporation different types of polymeric wastes (chopped plastic bottles with 2.36 and 1.18 max size and chopped rubber tires) with percentages (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% by weight of soil) , cause the firing shrinkage and water absorption to increase by (0.6-20.2%) and (3-43.5%) respectively, while the density, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity decrease by (3.5-25.1%), (0.4-2.3%), and (2.1-31.9%) respectively with respect to the reference fired clay bricks, depending on the percentage, particles size, and type of the polymeric wastes addition.

Analysis of Production System Effectiveness Elements

Mohanad A. Sahib; Lamyaa M. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 832-841
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.2

The global competition turbulent manufacturing environment, declining profit margin, customer demand for the high-quality product had a major impact on the manufacturer. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effective elements of the continuous production system at Baghdad Company for Soft Drinks as a case study consecutive for two years. Production system has been investigated by employing Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and Overall Resources Effectiveness (ORE). As a result, OEE shows low average values of (11%) at 2014 to (9%) in 2015, while ORE values show an average of (8%) in 2014 and (7%) in 2015 respectively.

Developing of Reliability-Centered Maintenance Methodology in Second Power Plant of South Baghdad

Amjad B. Abdulghafour; Ammar I. Abdulwahed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 842-852
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.3

Electric equipments of power station must be operated in the state of high reliability with its responsibility in the seamless power supply. Maintenance is one of the important and most costly phases in the lifecycle of any power generation systems, to improve maintenance management and system reliability and maintain the continuity of work of the system. Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) is one of the most recent maintenance techniques. In this research, an enhanced RCM methodology based on quantitative relationships implemented at system component level and the overall system reliability was applied to identify the distribution components that are critical to system reliability. Only unit one of the Second Power Plant of South Baghdad were selected as a case study in this research application. The major contribution of the study is to create a maintenance plan through applying statistical, historical data to generate a failure probability distribution model by using the combined methods of Failure Mode of Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). Evaluation criteria and matrixes of criticality are used to evaluate the criticality level of failure modes. The overall approach developed offers a cost-effective model, which can be applied prior to testing and inspection procedures during the RCM application. The results obtained from this case study show that the application of proposed RCM methodology based on preventive maintenance planning will decrease the total cost value of maintenance about 463469.85 $. That Indicates saving about 59% of the total downtime cost compared with current maintenance. As well as Proposed maintenance program reduce the required time to repair the plant components annually at a rate 6 day so that represent that the labor cost will minimized about 6424 $.

Effect of Aging Time on Deformation Behavior of Lead-Free and Lead Base Solders Alloys

Alaa H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 853-866
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.4

The effect of aging time on the deformation behavior of lead-free and lead- based sub-mm solder alloys were investigated. Experimental results showed that the aging time (less than 4 hours) did not have any effect on the anisotropy behavior of Tin solder balls during compression processes but that is clear in other intervals time specially when the aging time increased, and the microstructure images show different grain growth in high temperature longer time and the Tin anisotropic behavior in lead-free solder alloys

A Comparative Analysis for Congestion Mechanism in COAP and COCOA

Hamid M. Hasan; Ahmed I. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 867-877
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.5

Internet of things (IoT) is the paradigm for internetworking devices for data exchange and control. One of the important problems facing the IoT networks is the congestion; many researchers have discussed this problem. In this research, a comparison between two congestion control mechanisms used for internet of things the (CoAP and CoCoA) is presented. The cooja simulator was used for simulating different topologies and scenarios and the packets transmitted was captured using wireshak utility program. The captured packets were analyzed using MATLAB tools. The analysis showed that the CoCoA outperform CoAP in terms of goodput, number of dropped packets and bandwidth utilization.

Experimental Design Electromechanical Machine to Produce Electricity by Vertical Dynamic Load

Hosham S. Anead; Muhannad Z. Khalefa; Esraa K. Abd Ul–Rzaq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 878-886
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.6

In This Paper is designed electromechanical machine and running
down the industrial bump untapp..ed so kinetic energy of the vehicle as it
passes on the bump, this mechanism working principle of vertical movement of
the descent of bump shift about 12 cm certified so the springs and gears group
(rack and pinion gear), which kills it for circulation ( Large Sprocket), which
in turn will rotate (Small Sprocket) with a chain and then rotating the Dynamo
and will in turn charges the battery. Practical experiments have been an
achieved on the mechanism in the road, used vehicle is kind SAIBA success of
mechanism has been proved in bearing the load also good performance; It
also features power generation when moving down and reversing movement to
the top.

Design of Compact Multiband Microstrip BPF Based on Fractal Open-Ring Configuration

Hayder S. Ahmed; Hussain A. Hammas; Mohammed R. Hussan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 887-890
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.7

Multiband bandpass filters (BPFs) are one of the core elements in the multi-services wireless communication systems. For this purpose, this paper presents a design of a compact multiband microstrip BPF design based on fractal open loop configuration. The proposed filter structure is composed of an array of equal side length open-loop resonators; each with different fractal iteration level. More specifically, the modified Minkowski fractal geometry has been adopted to be applied to the conventional open-loop rectangular resonator. The resulting filter configuration has an array of different open-loop structures corresponding to various iteration levels. The simulation of the presented filter is performed using the EM Sonnet software package environment. The proposed filter is printed on a substrate of dielectric constant is 10.8 with thickness 1.27 mm. A filter structure with three resonators having different fractal iteration levels offers a triple band frequency response around 3.05 GHz, 2.05 GHz, and 1.68 GHz. Each of the three resonant bands is attributed by a distinct resonator according to the iteration levels. Additional resonant bands can be realized using extra loops with higher iteration levels.

Drag Reduction Study of Xathan Gum with Polydiallyldimethylammonium Chloride (PDDAC) Solutions in Turbulent Flow

Zainab Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 891-899
DOI: 10.30684/etj.336.8A.8

The transportation of liquids through pipelines is attributed with high-energy consumption due to the turbulent nature of their transportation. Low concentrations of polymeric additives were proven effective flow enhancing agent when injected into these pipelines due to its viscoelastic property capable of suppressing the turbulent structures; however, the mechanical degradation of polymers is a disadvantage, which can be controlled efficiently by using complex in a surfactant- polymer interface. In this presented work, turbulent drag reduction (DR) efficacy of anionic Xathan gum and nonionic surfactant (PDDAC) regarding the surfactant -polymer interface was studied using a rotating disk apparatus (RDA) technique and pipeline. The effect of surfactant addition, critical concentration of XG, and the dependence of drag reduction on the turbulent strength from the rotation speed were also studied. The critical behavior of the interface was found at XG (700 ppm) and (1000-ppm) concentrations, respectively. The drag reduction (~70%) was observed at critical concentration behavior, which is largely reliant on the alkyl chain in the surfactant molecule. The result of the a rotating disk apparatus (RDA) gave about 51% drag reduction with the Xanthan gum alone while in the pipe, about 58% drag reduction percent (DR%) was obtained. (PDDAC) alone yielded about 32% and 36% drag reduction in the rotating disk apparatus (RDA) and pipe respectively. However, combining the Xanthan gum polymer and Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) surfactant gave 62% drag reduction. Thus, it could be inferred that the combination of these duo has greater impact than the individual materials. It could thus be concluded that the complex formed by these materials is another form of drag reducing agents.

Design of Speed-Controller for Brushless DC-Motor Based on Grey Predictor-PID Controller

Mohammed Moanes Ezzaldean

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 900-905
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.9

Brushless direct current (BLDC) motor is a permanent-magnet synchronous motor but the commutator and the brushes are replaced by electronic commutation system. This motor is characterized by many advantages compared with other motors and it being used in a wide range of applications. In BLDC motor, speed control plays an essential role; the speed-controller has to respond rapidly to command changes and to offer enough robustness against the variations of the mechanical load. In this paper, the design of Grey-PID controller is proposed as speed controller of BLDC motor where a new adaptation algorithm is suggested to update the parameters of the adaptive PID controller. The proposed algorithm takes advantages of both of Grey model GM(1,1) and gradient-descent method. The Grey-PID speed control system is simulated by using Matlab\Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm that the proposed controller performs better than the traditional PID controller. By using Grey-PID controller, starting the motor or sudden change of speed can be performed with short rise and settling times, no overshoot and no steady-state error. The proposed controller, also, has a great ability to restrain the fluctuation of speed caused by load disturbance.

Effect of High Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Rubberized Concrete Using Recycled Tire Rubber as Fine Aggregate Replacement

Wrya A. Abdullah; Mohamed R. AbdulKadir; Muhammad A. Muhammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 906-913
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.10

Effects of various elevated heating temperatures on mechanical properties of normal concrete containing recycled tire rubber as a fine aggregate (RTRFA) has been investigated in this paper. Five different concrete mixes were prepared in the laboratory. In each mix Ordinary Portland Cement, natural coarse and fine aggregate, water and RTRFA are used with fine aggregate replacement ratios (0%, 6%, 12%, 18% and 24%) by weight. In the laboratory, 60 cylindrical specimens (100mm diameter × 200mm high) and 60 cubic specimens (150×150×150mm3) were prepared. The concrete specimens were exposed to four different heating temperatures: Control (Not heated), 200, 400, and 600°C, and tested according to British standards to observe the post-heating mechanical properties. These properties included density and mass loss, split tensile strength and compressive strength. The results showed a linear decrease in compressive strength with higher temperature degrees and percent replacement of fine aggregate by RTRFA. Moreover, the concrete’s tensile strength fluctuated as it increased at 6% of rubber replacement then linearly declined at further replacement rates. Finally, some crucial conclusions of heating rubberized concrete have been drawn.

Modeling of Continues Laser Welding for Ti-6Al-4V Alloys Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software

Haneen A. Salman; Kadhim A. Hubeatir; Mohanned M. AL-Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 914-918
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.11

A model for laser welding process using finite element method, the model was used for this work using the COMSOL Multiphysics software to predict the distribution of the temperature in the joint and to show the four welding zones (the melting zone, partial melting zone, zone affected by heat, and the material base). CO2 continues (CW) Laser used in the model welding thin sheets of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The results of this simulation work have been compared with the experimental works to show good agreement.

Design and Implementation of WLAN Based ZigBee for Personal Identification

Mohmmod Mosleh; Zahraa I. Saber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 919-924
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.12

In this research, a novel Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) that can be used for personal identification has been proposed in order to control the entering of any building or facility for safety applications. The network consists of three parts; node carrying by authorized persons, Base Station (BS) to control the entering and gate controller. A Personal Computer (PC), which represented the BS, will display automatically some information like picture and state about the person that entered when he/she becomes in BS coverage area. The gate controller of protected building is received a command of PC after matching the data onto entire person and open by a period to allow only one person to pass the gate after being sensed by Human sensor of controller. While preventing any other body by maintaining the gate in case of closure and show alarm. For the experimental purpose, the control of the gate is virtually assumed as Light-Emitting Diode (LED) to represent the opening and closing by lighting and closing the LED respectively. An Arduino Uno is used as microcontroller and ZigBee S2 is used for communication link, because of their simplicity, small size and low cost. Results of running the proposed model confirmed that it could effectively and accurately control the entry and exit of people authorized to enter the important formation and recording the date and time of entry and exit form the need for intervention by people. On the other hand, it can easily review any person files and show his/her daily attendance.

ECG Analysis Using DWT and Wavelet Coefficient to Reduce the Feature and SVM-ICP for Classification and Matching

Janan A. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 925-929
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.13

The Electrocardiogram (ECG) considered as one of the important issue in the medical field (hospitals and clinics), which is used to represent the health of a heart. Increasing patients of heart has supposed to design an automatic computerization technique to classify various abnormalities of the heart activities; to reduce the analysis time and detection mistakes. This research focusing on achieve high performance of classifying abnormal ECG by applying different methods. The first method is Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) with 4-level to transform the ECG signal and extract the feature extraction and Wavelet Energy (WE) during feature extraction as feature vector. In classification phase has used Support Vector Machine (SVM) to train datasets and classify the test samples, in matching phase, find closest vector of test to the training datasets method has used by applying Iterative Closest Point (ICP).

Performance Study of Solar Air Heater with Thermally Conducted Multi V Shaped Baffles and Ribs

Jalal M. Jalil; Ghaydaa K. Salih; Yosif A. Madh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 930-938
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.14

In this study, solar air heater with thermally conducted multi V shaped baffles and with same baffles and ribs are investigated experimentally and numerically to improve the performance of conventional air heaters. Numerically, steady state 3D forced convection turbulent model is used to solve Navier Stokes and energy equations of airflow inside rectangular duct of solar air heater. The code was validated by comparing the numerical result with experimental results and the agreement seems acceptable. The numerical studies were extended to study the cases of flat plate and straight baffles solar air heater. From experimental and numerical studies, it was found that the collector with V shaped baffles and ribs has the highest efficiency. The results showed that the V shaped baffles and ribs solar air heater is 14% more efficient compared to flat plate collectors.

A Proposed Method for the Sound Recognition Process

Azad R. Kareem; Marwa F. Jassim; Mustafa Q. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 8A, Pages 939-945
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.8A.15

One of the most important issues in the signal-processing world is the issue of sounds differentiations. It has many applications in identifying the sources of the sounds, and many researches nowadays serves in this field and all of them looking for the best way to have a high accuracy implementation of the discrimination process. Sounds can be recognized under suitable recording conditions by converting the sound signal from time to frequency domain (because Sound signal of a source differs from other sources by the frequency contents. This property serves to differentiate between sounds, and differences become visually apparent when the spectrograms of the signals are compared). All the classical methods based on the amplitude comparison of the spectrum. The main problem faces the recognition process is the 100% system accuracy cannot be achieved. A proposed strategy suggested solving the problem. It is based on the comparison of slops between spectrogram sections instead of the magnitude comparison and taking the minimum differences between the pattern and references stored in a database. The tested examples with the help of Matlab program proved that the proposed method is more accurate than the conventional methods.