Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758



Difference and Contradiction of Critique Methods to Produce Styles of Modulation in Architecture: (Architect Peter Eisenman as Example)

Basim H. Al-Majidi; Baneen A. Al-Saadawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1122-1143
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.1

Rapid changes and developments have brought contemporary intellectual theories and different and diverse ties to highlight the different and multiple concepts contribute to the definition of any philosophy and intellect, which are frequent and mutant methods and demonstrations of the same values and origins which in turn describe the state of existence, continuity, permanence and human communication, the most important concepts are Difference and contradiction as the basis of everything, and without them there is no existence or knowledge. most contemporary studies focused on the different critical methods linked to the semantics and meanings that express architecture on the one hand, and methods of expression, invocation and illustration on the other hand, and both are contribute in the formation and creation of architecture and enrich its architectural output, despite the wide presentation of the concepts of difference and contradiction but these propositions only addressing each notion separately without knowing their relationship as critical methods and trends shaping the contemporary architecture and achieving communication with community structure, So the problem of research has determined with (lack of comprehensive knowledge study describes the most important applied mechanisms to concepts of difference and contradiction as critical methods contribute to the production of continuous civilized building formation patterns of interaction between the designer objective and the receiver subjective), In order to address this problem, a conceptual framework was built for the methods of difference and contradiction, and the election a number of architectural projects of “Eisenman” which shows difference and contradiction as a clear critical trends and methods as applied mechanisms or strategies produce emerged architecture formation patterns of outreached architectural output among clones of what is happening globally or immersed in cloning for local references, and then described and evaluated them in accordance with indicators drawn from the conceptual framework of the concepts of difference and contradiction that place and give the more plausible explanation, presenting a number of recommendations to depend on as critical methodology contribute in production of patterns forming architecture, its recognition swinging between what is subjective accompanies sensory perception and what is that accompanies mental perception, and as sentimental mechanism for networking events, harmony and pleasure and thrill in physical output.

Hiding 9 Gray Images In RGB Image and Using Filters For Noise Removing

Haraa R. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1144-1147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.2

This paper shows two major techniques, the first is steganography and the second is filters. Gaussian and median filters are used to enhance the quality of image and remove the noise. Two kinds of noise are added to RGB cover image. RGB cover image are divided in to three cover images RGB. The hiding algorithm is Least Significant Bits (LSB) which is used to hide three different images in each part of noisy cover image. The results of proposed system show that the ability of extracting secret message without errors. Normalized Correlation (NC) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) tests are utilized to find the robustness of the proposed system. The simulation results of this work are performed by Matlab program.

Geomatics Techniques to Evaluate Bus Service Coverage A Case Study on Nasiriyah, Iraq

Murtadha S. Satchet

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1148-1157
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.3

In this paper, geomatics techniques were used to collect, build, and analyze a geo-database of the bus transport network. Spatial identification of bus routes and bus stops using GPS was performed using GIS to link and analyze the necessary metadata with the available spatial data. The criteria used to assess bus service coverage were as follows: the spatial coverage in terms of the walking distance to the transport service, the adequacy of the transport network length, and extent of supply availability of the bus transport system. The results revealed that the population “living in 47% of the city’s urban area” could arrive at a transport service within a period of less than 5 minutes (in other words, a walking distance of less than 400 m), which is the typical time to arrival. Furthermore, the study concluded that the current length of the transport network is sufficient to provide typical spatial coverage for the city's entire urban area if redistributed.

Effect of V-Shape Twisted Jaw Turbulators on Thermal Performance of Tube heat exchanger: An Experimental Study

Nassr F. Hussein; Nassr F. Hussein; Abdulmunem R. Abdulmunem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1158-1164
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.4

The main purpose of the present investigation is enhancing heat transfer rate in a tube heat exchanger by using V-shape twisted Jaws. The air is used as a working fluid and pumped through the test section with different values of Reynolds number (6000 - 19500), while the heat flux has been selected as a constant boundary condition around the tube section. In this study, two type of twisted jaw turbulators are used with two twisted ratio (TR= 2 & 4) as well as, the effect of using different numbers of turbulators (N= 6, 8 and 10) inside test section with equal distances between pieces are studied. The results indicated that, using augmentations with TR=2 gives better heat transfer rate and thermal performance factor comparing with the other case TR=4. The maximum rate of heat transfer is achieved in case of N=10 by an increased 160.29% for TR=2 and 102% for TR=4 comparing with plain tube case. In addition, results show that the values of thermal performance factor exceed the unity and shows uptrend behavior with rising numbers of turbulators indicating to feasibility of using these turbulators practically.

New Accurate Wattmeter Based on Logarithmic Amplifiers

Azzad B. Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1165-1170
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.5

Analog Computers can realize most of mathematical equations; these equations can be solved using difference, adder, logarithmic, anti-logarithmic, integrator, and differentiator amplifiers. The logarithmic and anti-logarithmic amplifiers are the main components of the analog computers, whereas, they can convert the multiplication and division operations to addition and subtraction ones, and they can convert the exponential functions to multiplication relationships. These amplifiers depend on the non-linearity of the relation between forward current and applied voltage of the diode. All of previous types of wattmeters, measure the consumed power of a specific load or resistor by multiplying the difference voltage of that load by the current passes through it (i.e. P=V.I). In this paper, a proposed accurate wattmeter circuit has been designed and implemented using logarithmic, anti-logarithmic, non-inverting, and difference amplifiers. The proposed circuit has been utilized for measuring the consumed power of a resistor that have any resistance value. It differs from previous conventional (analog, and digital) wattmeters due to its calculation of the consumed power for a given resistor by multiplying the voltage difference (V) across that resistor by itself once time, then the resultant value is divided by the resistance (R) value of that resistor (i.e. P=V2/R).

Applying Modern Optimization Techniques for Prediction Reaction Kinetics of Iraqi Heavy Naphtha Hydrodesulferization

Zaidoon M. Shakor; Anfal H. Sadeiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1171-1175
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.6

In this study, a powerful modern optimization techniques such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial neural network (ANN) were applied to estimate the optimal reaction kinetic parameters for Heavy naphtha Hydrodesulferization (HDS), the hydrodesulferization unit located in AL-Daura refinery-Baghdad/Iraq. The reactions was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor packed with Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and the operating was 315-400 °C temperature 35 bar Pressure and 0.5-2.1 hr-1 liquid hourly space velocity. The result showed that hydrodesulferization of heavy naphtha follows the pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. This study signifies that the reaction kinetic parameters calculated by Genetic Algorithm was found to be more accurate and gives the highest correlation coefficient (R2= 0.9507) than the other two methods. ANN technology by using the topology of (3-3-1-1) provides an effective tool to simulate and understand the non-linear behavior of the process. The model result showed very good agreement with the experimental data with less than 5%. mean absolute error.

Size Miniaturized Fractal Nested Circular Rings-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Various Wireless Applications

Shereen A. Shandal; Mahmood F. Mosleh; Mohamed A. Kadim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1176-1184
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.7

In this paper; a wideband fractal circular rings shaped microstrip antenna over partial rectangular ground plane is presented. Fractal geometry technique is used in order to take advantage of its self-similar property which lead to attain not only size miniaturization but also wider bandwidth and iteration method is utilized that reach up to third iteration. The proposed model is simulated by High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) package. Such model is designed on FR4 substrate with a compact size of (20×18×1.5) mm3, 4.3 permittivity and 0.02 loss tangent. The microstrip line feed is used to feed this antenna with a length of 4.65mm and width of 3mm, in order to increase the impedance bandwidth of proposed model to 67.64%. This model is designed to operate at a range of frequency (4.5-9.1) GHz with two resonant frequencies at 5.6GHz and 8GHz. The length of ground plane Lg is optimized for enhance antenna parameters such as input reflection coefficient and Bandwidth. The simulation results show that the input reflection coefficient values are -54.5 dB and -46.5 dB at two resonant frequencies 5.6GHz and 8GHz. Also, radiation efficiency of proposed antenna is 97.29% with peak gain of 4.34dB. This antenna is appropriate for various wireless Applications such as satellite communication, weather radar, (Industrial Scientific Medical) ISM band and (Wireless Fidelity) Wi-Fi.

Physical Properties Study on Ti-C/Nano-Ceramics Composite

Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban; Niveen J. Abdulkader; Hadeel A. Al baiaty

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1185-1188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.8

The effect of introducing Al2O3 and CuO nano particles on the physical properties of sintered Ti-C based materials has been studied. Titanium and carbon elemental powders have been mixed with nanoparticles of Al2O3 and CuO to produce composites of Ti-C/ceramics at 1100 °C. The XRD results show that for different amount of mixed nanoparticles, TiC, TiO2, and some rest of the reacted powders are the most dominant stable phases. In terms of physical properties, the results show that the raised Al2O3 percentage leads to gradually increase in apparent density of the sintered mixture as compared with the purely prepared TiC. Moreover, porosity and water absorption decrease with increasing Al2O3 percentage. On the other side, adding CuO to the sintered mixture causes in decreasing the apparent density. Furthermore, it was observed that CuO creates much porosity and increase water absorption of the sintered mixture.

The Effect of Addition of CeO2 Nanoparticles on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Al-Mg Compact Samples

Mahdi M. Hanoon; Akeel A. Al-Attar; Ali M. Resen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1189-1195
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.9

In this research, Ti-15Al-5Mg alloy with different amount of CeO2 nanoparticles was prepared by powder metallurgy method, the powders of these materials were mixed together by ball mill then the mixed powders were pressed under high pressure, the compacted samples were sintered in electron furnace under argon gas. The density and porosity measured using Archimedes method, XRD and SEM images were used to detect phase's peaks and microstructure of all alloy sets. Vickers micro-hardness measured and Brazilian compressive tests, the results of these tests were drawing in charts with porosity and CeO2 nanoparticles percentage. From these results the best amount of CeO2 is 7 vol.% which give best mechanical and physical properties, because of created of (Ti-CeO2).

Corrosion Activity Laser Treated Aluminum-12% Silicon Alloy with Fe and Ti Powders at Two Different Energies

Hanna A Al-Kaisy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1196-1200
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.10

In This work, the corrosion activity of laser treated almium-12%silicon alloy was tested. The addition of Fe and Ti as elemental powders was studied. Two different laser energies of 750 and 1000 kJ were used. Corrosion measurements by potential static at 3mV.sec-1in condensed synthetic automotive solution. The corrosion data show that laser treatment led to increasing corrosion resistance due to smoothness of the surface alloy because of high energy, and the corrosion resistance in the presence of Fe and Ti powders better than that in the absence of metallic powders were increased from (8.416 Ω.cm2( to )11.216 Ω.cm2( whereas corrosion rate decreased from (1.3194) to (0.7615) of specimens which laser treated with present Ti compared with as received , and the corrosion resistance increase with increasing laser energy.

Fault Diagnosis in Wind Power System Based on Intelligent Techniques

Kanaan A. Jalal; Lubna A. Abd alameer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1201-1207
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.11

Wind energy is one of the most important sources as well as being environmentally friendly and sustainable. In this paper, different types of faults of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) have been studied based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Field Programmable Gate Array. To simulate the wind generators model MATLAB/Simulink program has been used. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained for detection the faults and (PSO) technique is used to get the best weights. After the training process, the network was transformed into a Simulink program and then converted into the Very High Speed Description Language (VHDL) for downloading on the (FPGA) card, which in turn is used to detect and diagnosis the presence of faults where it can be re-programmed with high response and accuracy.

Effect of Inhibition by Honey on Corrosion Behavior of Composite Materials from Al-4% Si Alloy Reinforced with Y2O3 Particles

Hanna A Al-Kaisy; Mervit M. Hanoos

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1208-1212
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.12

this work focuses on the preparation specimens of metal matrix composite materials exemplified alloy (Al-4%Si) reinforced by yttria particles Y2O3 with different weight percentage (1,2and 3). Effect of yttria particles on polarization behavior of (Al-4% Si alloy) in sulfuric acid (0.5 M) was studied by using potentiostat in the presence and the absence of natural honey with different concentration (1and 2gm/L) as inhibitor. The results show that the values of tafel slops and corrosion rate (Rmpy) of composite materials reinforcing with particles of yttria with three percentage decreases with increasing the concentration of honey, and the efficiency of inhibition (El%) of composite materials in the acidic solution was more than that of base alloy after adding 2gm/L of inhibitor corrosive medium are (64.79%, 77.49% and 88.79%) respectively.