Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 36, 2B

Volume 36, 2B, December 2018

Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution by an Isatin-aniline Compound

Khalida F. Al-Azawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 98-103
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.1

Recently the researchers go to the eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors.
In the present investigation, isatin which found in many plants, Isatis tinctoria,
Calanthe discolor and Couroupita guianensis has been used as corrosion
inhibitor. An isatin-aniline compound, namely ethyl 4-amino-N-(3-isatinyl)
benzoate (AIB), was successfully synthesized in high yield and its inhibition
impact on corrosion of MS (mild steel) in hydrochloric acid as corrosive
solution was examined via weight loss and Scanning electron microscope
techniques. The results acquired appeared that AIB has employ perfect as a
corrosion inhibitor at low concentrations towards mild steel in HCl bath. The
impact of temperature on the corrosion behavior of MS in corrosive bath with
presence of (250) ppm of AIB has been investigated in the range of
temperatures (303-333) K. The thermodynamic parameters for inhibiting
process were investigated to find out the mechanism of corrosion inhibition of
MS acid bath.

The Influence of Immersion in Different Chemical Solutions on the Mechanical and Physical properties of (Epoxy/Styrene-Butadiene Rubber) Blend Reinforced with Nano Copper Oxide

Rana M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 104-109
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.2

The aim of this work was to evaluate some mechanical and physical
properties of a composite material which consists of (epoxy/styrene-butadiene
rubber) blend as a matrix, reinforced with copper oxide (CuO) with a weight
fraction 3%, and the composite material was manufactured by hand lay-up.
The optimum mixing ratio was (75:25) % of epoxy and (SBR) was chosen to
accomplish the work due to its highest impact strength (2.1KJ/m2). The tests
that were performed on the material were: tensile test, impact test, thermal
conductivity test, and the absorption test, in addition to the microscopic
imaging using scanning electron microscope (SEM), to determine the surface
morphology of the specimens. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric
acid (HCl), both (0.1) normal concentration solutions, were used for the
immersion. The results showed that CuO nanofiller improved tensile and
impact properties of the blend, besides increasing resistance to diffusion of
chemicals into the material. The results showed that the immersion in HCl
solution increased the impact strength of the composite from (2.27KJ/m2) to
(3.38KJ/m2), and also increased the tensile strength from (9.2MPa) to (9.8
MPa), while immersion in NaOH solution decreased the tensile strength to
(7.3MPa), but increased the impact strength to (2.42KJ/m2). Thermal
conductivity was (0.21W/m.°C) before immersion in solutions, but changed to
(0.27W/m.°C) and (0.24W/m.°C) after immersion in HCl and NaOH
respectively. The weight gain after immersion in NaOH was higher than weight
gain after immersion in HCl.

Intrusion Detection System Based on Data Mining Techniques to Reduce False Alarm Rate

Sarah M. Shareef; soukeana hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 110-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.3

Nowadays, Security of network traffic is becoming a major issue of
computer network system according to the huge development of internet.
Intrusion detection system has been used for discovering intrusion and to
maintain the security information from attacks. In this paper, produced two
levels of mining algorithms to construct Network Intrusion Detection System
(NIDS) and to reduce false alarm rate, in the first level Naïve Bayes algorithm
is used to classify abnormal activity into the main four attack types from
normal behavior. In the second level ID3 decision tree algorithm is used to
classify four attack types into (22) children of attacks from normal behavior.
To evaluate the performance of the two proposed algorithms by using kdd99
dataset intrusion detection system and the evaluation metric accuracy,
precision, DR, F-measure. The experimental results prove that the proposal
system done high detection rates (DR) of 99 % and reduce false positives (FP)
of 0 % for different types of network intrusions.

The Approximate Solution of the Fornberg-Whitham Equation by a Semi-Analytical Iterative Technique

Sinan H. Abd Almjeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 120-123
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.4

In this work, two semi-analytical methods are introduced in
order to handle the solution of the Fornberg-Whitham equation. The
first one method has been proposed by Temimi and Ansari, namely the
TAM. The second method is the Banach contraction method which is
briefly called the BCM. Both methods do not require using any
additional assumptions. Our calculations are distinguished by an
efficiency and rapidity of obtaining the results, in comparison with the
previous studies for solving the same problem.

Studying the Effect of Annealing Temperature on some Physical Properties of In2O3 Thin Films

Duaa A. Mohammed; Muslim F. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 124-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.5

In this study, In2O3 thin films were deposited on quartz substrates by
pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature and followed by
thermally annealing at 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃ for 1 hour. The optical band
gap was found to increase with the annealing temperature from 3.5 to 3.85 eV
and the transmittance was observed above 90%. XRD results show that the films
are polycrystalline in nature and crystallizes with preferred orientation (222).
SEM images show that the films are

The Growth Characteristics of RF-Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Films

Azhar K. Sadkhan; Suaad A. Mohammed; Mohammed K. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 128-130
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.6

In this paper, RF Magnetron sputtered TiO2 thin films deposited on
glass slices at various powers (75,100,125 and 150) Watt for (1.5) hour and
different thickness (62.5-88-118 and 132.6) nm, the TiO2 thin films annealed with
400°C for 2 hour and the morphology and structure of these films are described
by X-ray diffraction XRD and atomic force microscopy AFM to show the phase
structure. X-ray diffraction investigation uncovered that the crystalline size of the
TiO2 thin films displays an expanding pattern with increasing the sputtering
power. The preferred orientation of (101) was watched for the films deposited
with sputtering power of (75,100,125 and 150) Watt.

Easy and New Chemical Synthesis of Stable Nano Sliver using Propylene Glycol and Glycerin as Reducing Agents

Abdulah A. Mohammed; Sarab T. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 131-135
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.7

In this present work we have synthesized stable silver
nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by chemical reduction with aqueous solutions of
silver nitrate (i) propylene glycol (ii) glycerin as reducing agents and guar
gum as a stabilizer. The reaction were done at room temperature and at
pH=8. Systematic characterizations of the Ag-NPs were done using UV-Vis,
zeta potential analysis, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), AFM and SEM which
reveal stable Ag-NPs. These measurements indicate that the particles are
mostly spherical in shape. The UV-Vis spectra of the result solution of Ag-
NPs show an absorption peak at 412 nm and 424 nm for using propylene
glycol and for using glycerin respectively. These color occurring due to
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The SEM measurements gave a particle
size of 40 -70 nm. Nano silver showed stability for long periods of time to
more than nine months, and this can be an economical and effective way for
wide scale synthesis of Ag-NPs which applicable for various medical

Hydraulic Parameters of Groundwater Aquifers in Khan-Al-Baghdadi Area

Hussein I. Al-Sudani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 136-146
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.8

The mainly objective of groundwater studies is assessment the physical
characterizations of water-bearing layers. Conducting and analyzing aquifer
tests is one of the most efficient ways to assessment these characterizations. The
aim of this research is to carry out hydrogeological investigation in Khan Al-
Baghdadi area within Anbar Governorate in the west of Iraq to evaluate
hydraulic properties of the most important groundwater aquifers in order to
achieve optimum use of groundwater in term of sustainable water management by
using Cooper-Jacob and Theis Recovery Test methods to calculate transmissivity
and storage coefficient after field investigation of aquifers extended in the area
where geographical position, elevations, static water levels, depths, thicknesses
and maximum yields were carried out. The results showed that Khan Al-Baghdadi
area has only confined aquifer within the geological formation extended in area.
The average transmissivity and storage coefficient parameters, which calculated
using two wells, drilled in the area were (33.966-1171) m2/day and (2.2*10-4-
2.07*10-2) respectively, dependent on cooper-Jacob and Theis recovery solutions.
Transmissivity distribution contour map showed increased values towards
southwest part of the area while gradually decreased values was recorded in the
eastern and southeast part of the area.

Levels of Lead and Chromium Ions in Different Brands of Lipstick Sold at Local Markets in Iraq

Shaymaa H. Khazaal; Khalida F. Al-Azawi; Hamsa A. Eessa; Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori; Hasan R. Obayes; Abeer H. Khasraghi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 147-151
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.9

Lead and Chromium ion samples of five commercial samples
of each of twenty brands of lipstick sold at locally markets in Iraq were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples of
digested Lipstick were used, acid digestion method using acids HCl:
HNO3 in ratio 1:3 were used before analysis. Average for analyzed
samples were Pb, 0.10-4.85 ppm; Cr, 0.18-5.2 ppm. Samples No.9 and
No.4 showed the least concentrations of Pb and Cr respectively. These
values are not expected to be toxic to humans. However, exposure over
long periods might cause accumulation of the elements in the body and
even at low concentration; some metals could initiate allergic reactions.

Evaluation of purified urease activity from Proteus mirabilis using iron oxide nanoparticles and measurement of urea concentration in blood

Hadeel H. Dawud; Entesar H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 152-155
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.10

The activity of urease purified from Proteus mirabilis bacteria was
estimated using gamma iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) which were obtained as
standard in size (20- 40)nm, purity 99%. The enzyme activity was estimated by
incubating the pure enzyme with various concentrations of nanoparticles ranged
between (1- 6) μg/ml. The results indicates a decrease in enzymatic activity with
increasing of nanoparticles concentration. After that, the concentration of blood
urea was measured using urease obtained from a standard kit, urease purified from
Proteus mirabilis and the urease- gamma iron nanoparticles solution. The
comparison was then made among the results of urea concentrations by statistical
analysis using T-test. The results showed that there is no significant difference
between the results obtained from urease standard kit and urease purified from
the bacteria, this is due to the efficiency of urease purified from the bacteria. On the
other hand, the results showed that there is a significant difference (P≤ 0.01) in
urea concentrations obtained from urease- gamma iron oxide nanoparticles
solution due to the inhibition of the enzyme which lost its activity by nanoparticles.

Optical Characterizations of RF-Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Film

Azhar K. Sadkhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 156-159
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.11

TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films are widely used as antireflection coating
in solar cell, in this paper, RF magnetron sputtering technique is used to prepare
TiO2 thin film on glass substrates, TiO2 thin films deposited under different
powers (75,100,125 and 150) Watt for (1.5) hour resulted in different layer
thickness (62.5,88,118 and 132.6) nm respectively. The optical properties
examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films exhibit a high transparency in
the region from about 350 nm above, we suggest that these results indicate the
most suitable growing conditions for obtaining high quality sputtered TiO2 thin
films with higher transparence performance for solar cell application. the optical
absorbance coefficient for all films were genuinely high esteems coming to above
104 cm-1, which implies that there is allowed direct transitions, the energy gab
reach to the typical value of the bulk TiO2 (3.5) eV.

A Proposed Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosing System Based on Clustering and Segmentation Techniques

Sarah J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 160-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.12

Alzheimer's-disease (AD) is one of the prevalent diseases that afflict the
elderly. The medical field defines Alzheimer is the destruction of brain cells so
that the person loses knowledge and perception, afflict both sexes and is called
dementia. The medical field often suffers from accurate diagnosis and detection of
the disease in the early stages. This paper presents a diagnostic approach of
Alzheimer based on K-mean clustering algorithm with Markov random field
segmentation on Magnetic Reasoning Images (MRI) to build software able to help
the medical staff identifying and diagnosis the disease. The experimental result
shows that 91% accuracy is achieved, which demonstrate the system's reliability
in the medical diagnostic environment.

Comparison between the Biological Activity of Agaricus bisporus Fruiting Bodies and Albizzia lebbeck Leaves Extract against Different Pathogenic Microoganisms

Israa A. Al-Temimay

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 166-169
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.13

In this study, antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Agaricus
bisporus fruiting bodies and ethyl acetate extracts of Albizzia lebbeck leaves were
examined in-vitro with (2) two pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Proteus)
and yeast (Candida albicanus), following agar well diffusion method using
different concentrations (25, 50, and 100μl). The extracts of Agaricus bisporus and
Albizzia lebbeck were showed potent antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria
and yeast. Agaricus bisporus fruiting bodies extract was showed the highest
inhibitory effect versus growth of bacteria and yeast were tested in this study. The
E. coli and Proteus were found to show large sensitivity to the extracts of Agaricus
bisporus with 12 and 13mm inhibition zones respectively at 25 μl concentration
while Candida albicanus was more resistant to this extract with inhibition zone of
9mm at 25 μl concentration. In the same time the inhibition zone of Albizzia
lebbeck against E coli, Proteus and Candida albicanus were 12, 10.8, 6mm
respectively at 25 μl concentration.

Effect of Temperature and Concentration on the Optical Properties of PVC Solutions

Esam A. Tawfiq; Shams. M. Abdul kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 170-174
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.14

In this paper, effects of temperature and concentration on the
absorption spectra for Polyvinyl chloride solutions are studied at wavelengths
from 200 to 400 nm and with the range of temperature 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60
degrees (Co). Electronic absorption spectra were examined over the
wavelength range 200-400 nm by different concentrations (1x10-3, 8x10-4,
6.5x10-4, 5x10-4 and 3x10-4)[M]. The UV spectra shifted slightly towards
large wavelength with increasing the temperature. The values of the energy
gap of polyvinyl chloride are decreasing as concentration and temperature
increased. The data shows that the refractive index of the polymer decreases
with increasing the wavelength and temperature. The relationship between the
absorption coefficient and photon energy of the PVC solutions are calculated.