Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 36, 2C (3rd SCESD)

Volume 36, 2C (3rd SCESD), October 2018


The effects of Cyanobactrum Chroococcus Minor and Oscillatoria amonea on Seed Germination of Plant Vigna radiate

Ghaidaa Alrubaie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 103-107
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.1

Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic photosynthesis algae able to produce toxins and that cause problems in water quality, agriculture and aquatic organisms As well as concerns about the public health for humans. Among the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystins (MC) are the most common. In this study, Identification and Isolation of blue green algae Chroococcus minor and Oscillatoria amonea Belonging to the cyanobacteria division, BG-11 media were used to cultivation. In suitable laboratory conditions (25 ±2C°, 260μE/m2/sec) for 16:8 hrs. Light: dark. The culture was harvested after 30 days and determine the effects of the extracellular of both algae on seed germination for Vigna radiate. The results showed reduction in root and shoot length of the exposed seedlings. Observed throughout the study that with increased concentration of cyanobacterial cell extract been found on the growth radicle and shoots decreasing. It was found the begin decomposition of roots and is not configured to lateral root at treatment (5 ml D.W + 5ml extract) recorded 4.9 cm. the highest inhibitor in seed germination it is recorded 4.7 cm at treatment 10 ml extract

Determination of Radon Concentrations in Soil Around Al-Tuwaitha Site Using CR-39 Detector

Khalid Mahdi; Auday T. Subhi; Najlaa R. Sharif; Ghuzlan S. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 108-112
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.2

In this work radon concentration in 37 soil samples collected from 17 regions surround the (Al Tuwaitha) were measured by using solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD.s) CR-39 with natural exposure of one month, and by comparison with standard samples. The radon concentration in the soil samples was about (9.583 ± 0.369
28.029 ± 0.631) Bq/m3 in locations one (Rotate Salman) and eight (An area agricultural near high-voltage towers) respectively, with rate of (20.939 ± 0.541) Bq/m3. The specific activity of radium (Ra) dissolved during generate radon were ranging between (9.857 – 3.37) Bq.kg-1, with rate of (7.393) Bq.kg-1, surface emission of radon gas rate in the soil was found between (0.144 – 0.422 Bq/m2.h) with rate of (0.314 Bq/m2.h) and their mass emission of radon gas rate has the highest value of (0.016 Bq / kg . h) and lower value (0.005 Bq / kg . h) with rate of (0.012 Bq / kg . h. These results are within the acceptable limit
that recorded by UNECEAR and ICRP.

Determination Emitted Gasses from Using Three Types of Woods in Grilling Meats

Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Ahmed S. Al-Taie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 113-117
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.3

The randomly using of different woods in grilling meats may cause several health and environmental effects due to various gasses emitted from burning such woods. The current work has examined the type and concentration of several emitted gases from burning raw tree wood, wood charcoal and palm fronds. This study has measured volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon mono oxide (CO), ozone (O3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The concentrations of these emitted gasses were measured at fire start point, 15, 30 and 60 minutes.It has been found that raw tree wood gave highest mean value of VOC ranged from 6.61± 0.57 to 173.67 ± 12.52 ppm whilst palm fronds showed mean values lying between 17.67 ± 2.726 ppm and 48.6 ± 0.123 ppm. On the other hand, wood charcoal had emitted mean values varying from 1.33 ± 0.17 to 2.97 ± 0.13 ppm. For carbon monoxide, raw tree wood gave mean values varied from 39.6 ± 4.65 ppm to 442.67 ± 71.6 ppm while palm fronds showed mean values ranged from 39.47 ± 4.706 ppm to 432.67 ± 51.598 ppm. In addition, wood charcoal has been found to have mean values varying from 17.67 ± 2.32 ppm to 62.33 ± 3.44 ppm. In case of ozone content, raw tree wood had almost similar mean values varied from 0.02 ± 0.0 ppm to 0.02 ± 0.01 ppm and palm fronds showed mean values ranged from 0.0267±0.009 ppm to 0.0433±0.005 ppm. In addition, wood charcoal had almost similar mean values (0.04 ± 0.0 – 0.043 ± 0.03) during all combustion intervals but higher than those of other burning materials. Regarding hydrogen sulfide, the raw tree wood had a rang mean value of 4.43 ± 1.699 ppm to 23.37 ± 0.69 ppm. Palme fronds have given mean value varying from 1.267±0.205 ppm to 1.267±0.205 ppm. Meanwhile, wood charcoal smokes were free from H2S. The sulfide dioxide emitted from raw tree wood showed mean value ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 ppm to 1.173 ± 0.17 ppm. While palm fronds had almost constant mean values, during all combustion intervals, lying from 0.433±0.205 to 2.4±0.38 ppm. Wood charcoal had mean values varied from 0.3±0.04 ppm to0.57 ±0.09 ppm.

Measurement of Radon Gas Concentrations and Hazard Effects in Underground Water Samples in Karbala Governorate of Iraq

I. T. Al-Alawy; A. A. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 118-122
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.4

One of the most characterizations of social health is the existence availability of sources irrigation water. Since the main source of water, contamination is radon gas. Six regions in Karbala province in Iraq were chosen to evaluate Radon level in underground water-samples by using (SSNTD-CR-39) Detector. The current measurements showed that highest level was in Al-Horr region to be 4.152±2.2Bq/L, where lowest concentration was in Hay-Rumdan 2.165±1.6Bq/L. The maximum Annual-Effective Dose (AED) was found in Al-Horr to be 14.34±3.5μSv/y, whereas the minimal value indicated at Hay-Rumdan 8.66±3.1μSv/y. In general, it has been found that Radon-level concentration, in the studied groundwater-samples, was less than allowed permissible value 11.1Bq/L and annual effective-doses were below the recommended international value 1mSv/y. Therefore, groundwater in all underground water studied in Karbala province is safe where the focus of radon obsession is not a public concern.

The Effects of Sputtering Time on Cds Thin Film Solar Cell Deposited by DC Plasma Sputtering Method

Azhar K. Sadkhan; Sabah H. Sabeh; Mohammed K. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 123-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.5

CdS thin films of different thickness have been prepared by dc sputtering technique on glass slides for a window layer of solar cells. The CdS target were sputtered in different sputtering times (1,1.5,2.5,3) hrs, working pressure (2×10-2) mbar and discharge voltage(2) kV.The structure of the nanoparticles films was investigated of CdS thin films by X-ray diffraction (XRD).The XRD patterns showed that the films were hexagonal (wurtzite) structure having strong preferential orientation along the (002) plane with particle size in the range of (41.04-41.46-41.88-42.53) nm, the peak at (002) preferred orientations of the films are shifted a little from left to right side and films converted to crystalline form. The morphology of the nanoparticles films was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) which indicates that the average grain size of CdS thin film is in the range of (41.3-44.2-51.6-50.08) nm. The roughness of films surface increases with increasing the sputtering time, which can be useful for the solar cell.