Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758



Accuracy Assessment of World View-2 Satellite Imagery for Planimetric Maps Production

A.Z. Khalaf; I.A.K. Alwan; T.A. Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1A.1

A planimetric map of scale 1:10,000 meets the requirements of a large segment of user’s maps for instance urban city planners and various GIS implementations. Nowadays, a very high-resolution satellite images, such as World View02 (WV02) with spatial resolution of 0.5 m, are very important to produce planimetric maps or update existing ones. Main aim of this research is the assessment of WV02 image for production of the planimetric photomap of scale 1:10,000 with class 1 according to ASPRS standards (ASPRS give accuracy tolerances for map scales at 1:20,000 or larger, this accuracy reported as Class 1, 2, or 3). The investigation includes, studying the best-fit mathematical model (order of polynomial transformation model) that can be used to perform geometric correction for the used image. As well as, examine the effect of the ground control points (GCPs) configuration on the accuracy that can reached from photomap by using the best polynomial order. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) resulting at the checkpoints (CPs) will be evaluated. Before the study of impact of the mentioned effects, will be studying the possibility of obtaining a photomap with scale of 1:10,000 and determining the class of this map by using raster satellite image directly (raw image). Through it will compare the coordinates of GCPs observed by using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) on the raster WV02 satellite image with respect to its true position on the ground. Taking into consideration this comparison will be conducted according to international standards (National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA) and American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) standards). Evidenced by the results that have been accessible, it cannot obtained on photomap with scale of 1:10,000 of class1 according to ASPRS standard from raw WV02 satellite image, because the RMSE was 4.709 m, this value is largest of allowable error value for this class of the scale. Further, the extracted results showed that using a 1st order polynomial for WV02 image correction with the 14 GCPs that well distributed is slightly superior to other order polynomials (2nd and 3rd order) with a total RMSE of 0.790 m at the 8 ground CPs. On the other hand, using 13 GCPs well distributed (covers the wholly raster of the used image) for the correction process with the same polynomial order, the total RMSE obtained is 0.894 m obtained at 9 CPs, which is less than the value of two pixel size (user-threshold value) of WV02 image. As well as, according to NSSDA and ASPRS standards, this result satisfies the requirements of large-scale maps production accuracy (larger than 1:10,000). In addition, by decreasing the number of the GCPs (using 9 GCPs until 4) the reliability of the results decreases (i.e., the horizontal error increased, approximately 1.4 m are obtained at CPs), but at the same time can get a photomap within scale of 1:10,000.

Design and Simulation of Six-Band Triplexer Filter for WLAN Systems

A.S. Ezzulddin; S.K. Khaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 10-16
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1A.2

This paper presents microstrip triplexer with 6 bands frequency responses. The design of triplexer uses 6 cross coupled resonators based on step impedance resonator. Each one of these resonators has short or open-ended section that initiates dual-band response with a large rejection band. The presented device has 3 two-pole dual band filter channels that are joint with regular T-shaped feeders. This triplexer has miniature area in term of

H-infinity Model Reference Controller Design for Magnetic Levitation System

H.I. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136750

In this paper, a new robust approach based on combining the model reference control with H-infinity technique is proposed. The goal of the proposed controller is to obtain an adequate transient response which may not be obtained when only H-infinity technique is used. This is done by adding the model reference block to the standard H-infinity feedback configuration. Then the overall block diagram is formulated by linear fractional transformation (LFT). The Magnetic Levitation which is a highly nonlinear, open loop unstable and uncertain system is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The results show that the proposed controller is very effective in compensating the system parameters variations with forcing the system output to track the output of the model reference. A variation of ±10% in system parameters is considered.

Characterization of Liquid Produced from Catalytic Pyrolysis of Mixed Polystyrene and Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic

R.S. Almukhtar; S.I.H. Abduallah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1A.4

Plastic wastes accumulation increased each year in the environment. Plastics types are different such as polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In this paper, catalytic pyrolysis of Polystyrene and Polyethy terephthalate were studied to find the effect of PET on the pyrolysis of PS. The reaction took place in stainless batch tubular reactor to determine the effect of temperature and residence time. The maximum liquid products yield at optimum temperature and heating time(60 min) was 77% , 67.56%, 54% and 37.48% for PS, 10%PET + PS, 20%PET + PS and 30%PET + PS respectively. The liquid produced were characterized by GC-MS at optimum condition. The component of the liquid are styrene monemer, toluene, alpha-methylstyrene, 1,3 Diphenylpropane, 1-Phenylnaphthalene, 4-phenyl-1 butene. Styrene monomer was found to be the main product in the pyrolysis of PS, 10%PET+PS, 20%PET+PS and 30%PET+PS.The physical properties such as density, viscosity, and caloric value of the produced liquid was investigated ,the results was 0.9 g/cm3 ,2-3 Cp, and 40-45 MJ/kg respectively.

Indian Number Handwriting Features Extraction and Classification using Multi-Class SVM

H.A. Jeiad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 33-40
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136753

In this paper, an Indian Number Handwriting Recognition Model (INHRM) is proposed. Mainly, the proposed model consists of four phases which are the image acquisition, image preprocessing, features extraction, and classification model. Initially, the captured images of the handwritten Indian numbers were enhanced and preprocessed to obtain the skeleton for the interested object. The extracted features of the handwritten Indian numbers were obtained by calculating four parameters for each captured number sample, these parameters are the number of starting points, the number of intersection points, the average zoning which consists of four values, and finally, the normalized chain vector of length of 10 elements. So, the resulted 16 values of the four parameters were arranged in a vectors of length of 16 elements. These features vectors were used in the training and testing processes of the proposed INHRM model. Multi-class SVM (MSVM) approach is suggested for the classification phase. An accumulation of 600 samples of various handwritten Indian numbers styles has been gathered from a group of 60 students. These samples were preprocessed, features extracted, then delivered to the classification phase by utilizing 500 samples of them for training while the remaining 100 samples were used for testing of the MSVM-classifier model. The results showed that the proposed INHRM achieved relatively high percentage of exactness of around 97%.

Study the Dye Decolorization of Wastewater Using Bentonite, H2O2, Ultrasonic and Laser Techniques

A.Z. Mohammed; A. Sh. Hamadi; H.A.M. Redha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 41-45
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136754

The bentonite is an adsorbent material that is used frequently in industrial fields. bentonite was used with laser to treat wastewater, when laser is a new technique that has ability to remove the dye. Using of laser as a source to refresh with high efficiency has the important in industrial field.In this study laser diode with power 50 mw, He-Ne laser with power 10 mw and DPSSL with power 500 mw were used with the help of ultrasonic bath and H2O2 to promote the work of the laser. AFM and FTIR testing were made to bentonite to study the characteristics of it. Minitab program was used to facilitate calculations and choose the optimum parameters of experiments. The optimum input conditions of experiments to remove the dye from wastewater were chosen. The best concentration of bentonite is 4 g/l, the best temperature of wastewater is 42◦C, the best time of work is 27 min and the best concentration of H2O2 is 10%. It found from study that the increase of each parameters cause decrease in output concentration of wastewater. The accuracy of work was determined from Minitab program, it was 94.54%.

Experimental Investigation of Wire EDM Process Parameters on Heat Affected Zone

V.N. Najm

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 46-54
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136755

It is vital to study the impact of heat since it has an unwanted phenomenon on the operating life of parts produced, which is in turn effect the cost of production. when dimension accuracy is the primary function Wire cut machining comprehensively used specially when machining hard metal by using precisely controlled sparks that occur between a very thin wire and a workpiece in the presence of a dielectric fluid. The aim of this research is to study the effects of some Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) variables on heat affected zone, white layer and Surface Roughness (SR) of high speed steel using ANOVA method to analyze the behavior of control parameters such as pulse on time (μs), current and wire tension. Experimental investigations separates into two main parts in the first one the wire electrical discharge machining process was accomplished on smart EDM (Electra wire cut machine), and in the second part the roughness of the machined samples surface was tested and the samples were prepared to be measured. The results shows that the heat affected zone and the white layer are affected with the risen of the current and pulse on time values more than the risen in wire tension values, as well as the wire tension affects the surface roughness more than the current and pulse on time.

A Multiband Printed Slot Antenna Loaded with Trapezoidal Slots for WLAN and WiMax Applications

H.T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 55-59
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136756

In this paper, a multiband printed antenna has been proposed. The antenna structure is inspired from that of the classical multi-cavity magnetron resonator. The antenna structure is composed of a slot annular ring structure etched on the ground plane of a substrate. The outer circle of the annular ring is loaded with radially arranged small trapezoidal slots. While on the other side of the substrate, the antenna is fed with a 50-Ohm microstrip line. A parametric study has been conducted to explore the effect of the different antenna dimensions on its performance. The results show that the proposed antenna offers triple band resonant responses with considerable frequency ratios of f3/f2, and f2/f1. Measured results of the input reflection coefficient responses of a fabricated prototype are found to agree well with the theoretical findings. The antenna has an input reflection coefficient response enables it to serve the 2.4/5.2 GHz WLAN and the 3.5/4.5 GHz WiMax applications. Besides, the antenna offers reasonable radiation characteristic with acceptable values of the gain throughout the four resonant bands.

Surface Roughness Evaluation in WEDM Using Taguchi Parameter Design Method

S.H. Aghdeab; V.N. Najm; A.M. Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 60-64
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136757

Machining of hard metal is difficult by conventional method to obtain high accuracy where the dimensional accuracy is the main factor. Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) extensively used, which is mostly used in machining of conductive materials by using precisely controlled sparks that occur between a very thin wire and a workpiece in the presence of a dielectric fluid. This study serves in studying surface roughness (SR) of high speed steel (HSS) using taguchi method to design the experiment, this was achieved with utilizing different wire cut machining parameters and study the behavior of these control parameters such as pulse duration (μs), pulse interval (μs), Servo feed and Servo voltage (V) on surface roughness. It can be noticed that when servo voltage and servo feed increase the surface roughness decreases and when pulse duration and pulse interval increase the surface roughness increases too, and It was found with using taguchi parameter design that the best machining variables of combination setting is Servo Voltage (22) volts, Pulse on time (110) μs, servo feed (450) mm/min and Pulse off time (30) μs to reach to the minimum value of surface roughness and hence better surface finish.

Bio and Mechanical Evaluation of an Enhanced Bio Glass

J.T. Al-Haidary; M.N. Arbilei; J.S. Kashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136758

These Tap casting and powder metallurgy methods used to produce the 45S5 Bioglass. This study revealed that the bioglass modified with 0.2% Y2O3 has about 700% increases in hardness. The modification of bioglass with 0.2% Y2O3 leads to a 44% increase in fracture toughness values. This study revealed that the 0.2% Y2O3 bioglass composition-modification improves the fracture strength by almost 150%. The laboratory histological sections showed that 45S5 bioglass (original composition materials showed nether systemic nor local inflammation with new bone formation at site of implantation. The Y2O3 modified the 45S5 bioglass showed no inflammation reactions as well, but no new bone formation and regeneration was noticed in the adjacent bone tissue.

Aluminum Concentration Drives the Structural Evolution of Magnetron Sputtering (Ti, Al) C Thin Film

A. Al-Ghaban

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 70-74
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136777

The effect of deposited Al on the structural evolution of TiC films with a chemical composition variation has investigated during combinatorial magnetron sputtering of binary ceramic (Ti, Al) C. The here produced thin films have been investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction technique XRD. The structural evolution of combinatorial magnetron sputtered Ti-Al-C system deposited at room temperature fined to be located in the extent of: Ti at.%= 36.74-60.55, Al at.%= 12.05-30.61 and C at.%= 22.53-47.69. XRD results show that films are constituted of mostly cubic (Ti, Al) C phase as well as an X-ray amorphous region in the range of Ti at. %= 37.31-54, Al at. %= 27.67-30.61 and C at. %= 22.53-36.92. A clear evidence for the formation of two different structural regions driving by Al concentration has been observed. X ray analysis also shows that the (111) orientation in the (Ti, Al) C phase is dominant with increasing the Ti concentration.

Effect of Polymer Additives on Permeability of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

H.H. Jony; M.M. Hilal; D.S. Helan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 75-83
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136780

The presence of water in the pavement structure causes early deterioration and leads to less pavement durability as a result of loss of bond between aggregate and binder and may causes loss of strength and stability in mixture, The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of various polymer additives on permeability of asphalt concrete mixture. The surface wearing coarse type IIIA was chosen in this study. Three types of polymer additives were used in this study; (7% Latex Emulsion (LE), 7% Poly Vinyl Acetate with 4% Styrene Butadiene Styrene (PVA + SBS) and 8% Ethylene Diamine (ED)). The results appeared that the permeability average of all mixtures were (27.745, 17.18, 7.773 and 11.409 * 10 -5 cm/s) for (control blend, LE, PVA+SBS and ED) and the percent of decreasing in permeability were (48.52%, 74.547% and 58.312%) for (LE, (PVA + SBS) and ED) respectively.

Composition Design Modeling and Experimental Verification of (Co Ni Al) Shape Memory Alloys

M.N. Arbilei

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 84-88
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136782

The most important concepts to apply a shape memory alloy in many
industrial applications is the composition design that controls the
transformation temperatures. In this paper, two mathematical models were
created to predict the transformation temperatures for poly-crystalline (Co-Ni-
Al) alloys. The data that was depend on to find the relation between chemical
composition and transformation temperatures were concluded from previous
work and approved by preparing samples in investigation practically. Four
different alloys were prepared to verify this relation. It was indicated that the
best criteria that present the chemical composition is the (e/a) and make the
alloy applicable for different applications. These suggested chemical
compounds could be controlled and adjusted according to heat treatment time.

Density and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Self-Compacting Carbon Fiber- Reinforced Concrete

G.A. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136783

comprehensive research has been carried out to understand the effect of adding carbon fibers to density and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self-compacting concrete. Fifteen SCC mixes were prepared with two types of mineral admixtures and carbon fibers. Metakaoline and silica fume were used as mineral admixtures while carbon fibers were used as fiber inclusions. Two different fiber length (6mm and12mm) and fiber fraction (0.1 % and 0.5 %) was used. Different parameters such as slump flow diameter, T500 time, V-funnel time, blocking ratio and filling height difference were used to evaluate fresh state properties. Air-dry density and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity values are determined for mixes at age of 7, 28, 90 and 180 days. The experimental results indicate that concrete mixes contained carbon fiber showed higher air dry density than concrete mixes without fiber, the percentage increase were between 0.85% to 3.31% at age (7,28,90 and 180) days respectively. Concrete mixes contained carbon fiber compared with the reference mixes without carbon fiber exhibits an increase in the ultrasonic pulse velocity values of about 0.74% to 5% at age (7,28,90 and 180) days respectively .

Design a Fuzzy PID Controller for Trajectory Tracking of Mobile Robot

M.J. Mohamed; M.Y. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 100-110
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136785

In this paper, a trajectory tracking control for a non-holonomic differential wheeled mobile robot (WMR) system is presented. A big number of investigations have been used the kinematic model of mobile robot which is a nonlinear model in nature, thus a hard task to control it. This work focuses on the design of fuzzy PID controller tuned with a firefly optimization algorithm for the kinematic model of mobile robot. The firefly optimization algorithm has been used to find the best values of controller's parameters. The aim of this controller is trying to force the mobile robot tracking a pre-defined continuous path with the least possible value of error. Matlab Simulation results show that a good performance and robustness of the controller. This is confirmed by the value of minimized tracking error and the smooth velocity especially concerning presence of external disturbance or change in initial position of mobile robot.