Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758



Research Paper

Weak Convergence of Two Iteration Schemes in Banach Spaces

Salwa Abed; Zahraa M. Mohamed Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 32-40
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.1

In this paper, we established weak convergence theorems by using appropriate conditions for approximating common fixed points and equivalence between the convergence of the Picard-Mann iteration scheme and Liu et al iteration scheme in Banach spaces. As well as, numerical examples are given to show that Picard-Mann is faster than Liu et al iteration schemes.

Catalytic Reaction of Ethanol into Light Olefins Over 2wt%CuO/HZSM-5

Fanar G. Hashim G. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 41-44
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.2

There was increasing in the international needing for fossil fuel, which is formed from nonrenewable materials such as crude oil. Bio-ethanol considered one of the materials that can be produced from renewable sources like the fermentation of sugar cane. 2wt% CuO doped HZSM-5 has been modified by the impregnation method. All experimental runs have conducted at 500 °C, 1 atmosphere pressure and WHSV 3.5 h-1 in a fixed bed reactor. Catalyst, which modified in this work, was analyzed by SEM and XRD as well as TGA experiment. The analysis hydrocarbons products have done by gas chromatographs provided with flame ionization detector (FID) and thermal conductivity detector (TCD). It has been studied CuO doped HZSM-5 catalyst gives higher ethanol conversion and yield especially light olefins as compared to HZSM-5 parent catalyst. In addition, reduces the coke formation over HZSM-5, therefore, enhanced the life of HZSM-5 catalyst.
HZSM-5, ethanol to hydrocarbons, Catalyst, coke, deactivation

Modeling the Plasma Frequency for F2-Region Using Modified Chapman Function and NeQuick2 Model over Different Geographical Locations and Months

Ali H. Ni'ma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 45-53
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.3

This study aims to modeling the plasma frequency profile of the F2 region as a function of geographical location and month of the y ear. The most important model and function used are Chapman function and NeQuick 2 model which have been defined both by exponential function. These models need some ionospheric parameters such as the critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2), maximum peak height (hmF2), semi thickness (ymF2), and the M factor (M (3000) F2). The results of these models are compared with the results of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. For north hemisphere, the results of Chapman function has great fit with the results of IRI2012 model for low and high latitudes. For southern hemisphere the MAPE has greater values at high latitudes and drops to low latitudes. For NeQuick model, MAPE has a periodic behavior with latitudes. The monthly mean of the MAPE of the results obtained by modeling the plasma frequency profile using Chapman function and NeQuick2 model equal 0.466 and 0.259. The analysis of the MAPE for ten months gives a best correlation between the MAPE and foF2.

Wavelet-Based Denoising Of Images

Alauldeen S. Yaseen; Rafid S. Zamel; Jabbar H. Khlaief

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 54-60
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.4

Wavelet-analysis has become a powerful tool for denoising images. It represents a new way to achieve better noise reduction and increased contrast. Here, experimentally demonstrate abilities of discrete wavelet transform with Daubechies basis functions for improving the quality of noisy this research two methods has been compaired for modify the coefficients using soft and hard threshold to improv the visual fineness of noisy image depend on Root-Mean-Square error (RMS). The low RMS value and better noise reduction find in soft threshold method which is based on Daubechies wavelet (db8) for first example image RMS=0.101 and second example RMS=0.109

Optical and Thermal Characterizations of PMMA Composites

Raghad S. Al-Khafaji; Kareem A. Jasim; Adil M. Ibraheim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 61-66
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.5

Thick composite films were prepared employing hand – layup method . A definite quantity of PMMA ( 98%wt ) , fixed content ( 2% wt ) of rutile titanium dioxide TiO2 , gamma alumina ( ᵞ- Al2O3 ) and Zirconia powder ( ZrO2 ) , were added to polymer solution gradually and separately. Optical constants were obtained of the prepared samples using spectrometer (UV- VIS). The prepared composite samples were thermally characterized by differential scanning calorimeter ( DSC ). We notice increasing value of glass temperature and differential heat capacity ( ∆Cp ) for composites compared with pure PMMA .