Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 37, Issue 1C

Volume 37, Issue 1C, April 2019, Page 1-203


Research Paper

Shortage Sanitation Services in the Outskirts of Baghdad and its Environmental Impacts

Alaa R.H. Al-Obaidi; Sara D.A. Zangana; Saja H.S. Al-Sudany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.1

This study focuses on evaluation of the reality of wastewater services in the areas of outskirts of Baghdad which the responsibility of their implementation rests on the province of Baghdad and the ministry of construction and housing and general municipalities/ the General Directorate of Sewerage GDS, and to suggest the possibility to improve these services in light of the plans developed by the concerned authorities and the proportion of disability in the services suffered by those areas. The study concluded that the completion of the stopped project because of the financial crisis will raise the proportion of serves population to approximately 71.4%, and the construction of new projects will raise the proportion to approximately 100%.

Toxic Soil Contamination in Al Muthanna Storage Site Using Geospatial Analysis Technique

Hisham M.J. Al Sharaa; Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 6-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.2

The Iraqi past chemical program was destroyed by the military operations or destructed by the UNSCOM/CDG teams during the early 90s. Both operations lead to a large number of scattered remnants of contaminated areas. The quantities of hazardous materials, incomplete destructed materials and toxic chemicals were sealed in two well-protected bunkers. Lack of appropriate destruction technology, led to spread the contamination around the bunkers .since 2009 the Iraqi experts have been working to develop a practical plan for decommissioning the contaminated area. This paper introduces the hazard contamination in the storage site using geospatial analysis technique. The contamination level of two main chemical compounds (Copper Cu and cyanide Cn) have been evaluated and analyzed, taken from different soil samples of the site, surrounding areas have investigated and analyzed compared to the reference points. The storage area divided into 30 sector major sectors level of soil samples from soil surface all samples collected from acquires 10 samples from each sector. The results showed The Cn level exceeds the permitted level by (55000) times and for copper by (1050) times over the permitted level very high Contamination activity was found in the storage area.

Criteria for Sustainable Planting Design Applications in Landscape Architecture Projects Under Arid Conditions

Abdullah M.F. Ghazal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 10-18
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.3

Planting design is an important part of all Landscape Architecture projects (LAps). It needs new criteria in order to make it more sustainable. When arid conditions are dominant, these criteria will be more difficult. These limiting factors of harsh environment and aridity, such as high temperature and evaporation, low rainfall, poor and sandy soil, are largely diverse in many levels concerning water, soil, and climate. Thus they clearly appear in designing and impeding sustainable LAps. The planting design in LAps is governed by three major factors which are: plant species, water availability, and the control soil property and climate conditions. However, the designer can adjust and customize these designs aiming at satisfying sustainability principles by carefully selecting plant materials from native or exotic plants and dealing with new practices effectively within the landscape, such as managing water supplies, irrigation methods, plant water requirement (PWR), modifying soil properties to be more efficient, appropriate to hold water, and developing the planting design techniques to restrain aridity conditions. This study adopted field and environmental analyses of real projects to reach new criteria for planting design in LAps that are able, by increasing the functional and environment.

Reducing Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon from Soil Polluted with Iraqi Crude Oil by Phytoremediation Technology

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Sara M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 19-21
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.4

They used anew-green technology phytoremediation to reduce and remove pollutants from the soil. The purpose of the current research study was to survey the effect of soil pollution with a variety of doses of crude oil on the generation and growth of the plants. The study was made for 120 days from March to June in a control condition in the greenhouse and laboratory. Unpolluted soil near the Tigris River was taken and be polluted with varied doses of crude oil. They used alfalfa, Cotton and Grass in this research to reduce pollution. It made a comparison between the results of the three plants species to choose the best plant for total petroleum hydrocarbons removal from the soil. Grass plant gave the greatest result in total petroleum hydrocarbons removal, which gave up to 50.66% for Treatment 4, and cotton came in second place with 49.82% removal rate in treatment 2. Alfalfa came at the end with a removal rate of 31.78% for treatment 2 of the crude oil.

Estimation of Water Balance for the Central Basin of Erbil Plain (North of Iraq)

Qusai Y. Al-Kubaisi; Tariq A. Hussain; Muayad M. Ismail; Faaeza A. Abd-Ulkareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 22-28
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.5

Erbil city located, in the northern part of Iraq, within the central basin of Erbil plain which covers an area about 1400 Km2 where Erbil city area measures about 70 Km2, is located between latitudes (36ᵒ 08 30̋ - 36ᵒ 14 15̋) north and longitudes (43 ° 57 '30 "- 44 ° 03' 20") east, The rocks exposures at the central Erbil plain date back to the (Upper Miocene-Recent) and this includes Ingana, Muqdadiya, Bai Hassan formations as well as Quaternary deposits. Tectonically, the studied area is located within Chumchamal-Butma Subzone at the area of the foothills. The movement of the groundwater in the study area is from the east to the west. Depending on the climatic data recorded in Erbil station for the period (1980-2016) shows that the total falling rain was (418.0) mm, and the temperature (15.81 ° C), relative humidity (29.96%), wind speed (1.94 m / s), solar brightness (8.28 hours / day) and the total evaporation from free surfaces was (1674.8 mm) the prevailing climate in the region is moist-humid to moist. corrected potential evapotranspiration was calculated theoretically apply Thornthwaite method where she was value 734.58 mm, was also calculate the water surplus , which accounted for 79.18% divided into surface runoff and its value 39.36 mm and Groundwater Recharge 87.82 while the water deficit represents 20.82% of the annual rainfall as the annual recharge rate was calculated for Erbil Central Basin and is reached 122.94 × 106 m3/year.

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Investigation of Desalination by Refrigerant Clathrate Hydrate Formation

Shurooq T. AL-Hemeri; Riyadh S. AL-Mukhtar; Lina W. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 29-44
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.6

Gas hydrate is a crystalline solid compound form of water with hydrophobic gas at certain conditions (pressure and temperature). The hydrogen bond in water molecules constructs a framework as a host that entraps gas molecules (gust). Gas hydrate can be applied to many industries such as gas separation, cool storage, food concentration and desalination. Hydrate route looks a promising alternative technology compared to the conventional process, by utilizing a proper gas host, which can be held within water cavities composed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules. In this study the selected host gas was Refrigerant R134a, the work consists of an experimental and theoretical investigation dealing with hydrate formation for the ternary system (water, refrigerant gas, salt) at different initial pressures, the salts were NaCl, KBr and NaF. Method of isochoric pressure search method was used to measure the pressure and temperature for hydrate formation and conduction the three phases of (hydrate-liquid-vapour). The measurements were performed with pressure range (0.1 - 0.4) MPa and the temperatures about (275.2 – 283)K at the concentrations of (0.09,0.17 and 0.26)mol/kg for each salt. The kinetics of R134a clathrate formation for ternary systems (R134a, water and salt) at various types and concentrations of salts. Many objective functions were obtained from the kinetic model for hydrate formation, such as the amount of gas consumed, the growth rate, and the conversion of the water to hydrate. The results showed the effect of the initial pressure on the gas consumed, the rate of growth and water to hydrate conversion, that when the initial pressure increase the moles of R134a gas consumed was increased due to the increased driving force of hydrate formation, also other functions were increased. While the increasing in the concentration of salt for all types will be decreased gas consumed, whereas water to hydrate conversion, the growth rate is slightly decreased. And from the results noticed the presence of different salts in the ternary systems have an effect on the thermodynamics inhibition of refrigerant hydrates and the inhibition increases with the presence of NaCl salt in the ternary system more than other types of salt and also increases with increase the concentration of salt.

Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar Made with Black Tea Waste Ash as a Partial Replacement of Cement

Mohammed S. Nasr; Zaid A. Hasan; Mohammed K. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 45-48
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.7

Environmental pollution and the relatively high cost of waste disposal has been a major focus for scientists around the world, leading researchers to find a solution to reuse waste materials in different applications. Iraqi people consume hundreds of tons of black tea each year, which produce a large quantity of the used tea, leaves as waste. These large quantities go to landfills without any benefit or recycling. Additionally, landfills are considered one of the biggest crisis facing the Iraqi government. Therefore, this study aims to recycle the black tea waste ash (BTWA) by utilizing it as a partial replacement of cement. Cement mortar mixes containing five replacement levels of cement with BTWA (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% by weight) were carried out. The compressive strength and flexural strength tests were adopted to show the effect of BTWA on mechanical properties of cement mortar. The flow rate of fresh mortar was also measured. Results indicated that, up to 7.5% replacement, the compressive strength values were improved. For 10% replacement, the compressive strength values were equal to that for control specimens. In contrast, the BTWA had a negative impact on the flexure strength of mortar at replacement levels 5%, 7.5% and10%. For 2.5% substitution, however, the flexure strength was enhanced slightly (about 2%).

Restoring the Local Heritage and its Role in Sustainable Spatial Development the Great Market in Al-Najaf – a Case Study

Wahda Sh. Al-Hinkawi; Baneen A. Al-Saadawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.8

Regional and local changes in Iraq have led to an accelerated dynamic of comprehensive development without the preservation of local heritage, which caused the loss of many traditional buildings, changing their urban fabric, the emergence of contradictory architectural styles, and others without a clear and specific identity, causing visual deformation. The research problem was identified from the goals and principles of urban design that concerned with the conservation, restoration, and continuity of heritage context, activates their role in sustainable development programs and as a response to changes and radical shifts in spatial structures of city centers, and the social and economic changes, as; “the lack of clear indicators for the restoration of local heritage and its role in achieving spatial development”. The paper will present an analytical study of international and Arabic leading experiences, in the processes of preserving and restoring local heritage, as an important policy in the development and sustainability of places, and try to assess the local experience, according to the indicators derived from them, conduct recommendations for developing the methodologies and policies of restoring local heritage, that suit with the identity and privacy of historical and heritage contexts

Air Quality Assessment of Some Selected Hospitals within Baghdad City

Azhar M. Haleem; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Salah M. Haleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.9

Hospitals are institutions designed to provide medical assistance to sick people have harm to their bodies, making them more likely to die than others, so indoor air quality (IAQ) of the various facilities of the hospital must be taken into account by providing an efficient Heating, ventilating and airconditioning (HVAC) systems with periodic maintenance and renewal for nonworking parts, and should appropriate with the health status of admissions, workers and visitors, the present study has been carried out to evaluate indoor air quality (IAQ) for three selected hospitals within Baghdad city. The study period included the summer and winter of (2017) and the pollutants considered are Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Fine particles (PM10), Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). In addition to examining the airborne microorganisms by determination, both total count and diversity. The main objective of this paper is to assess the (IAQ) inside the hospital environment.

Simulation of Mosul Dam Reservoir Operation for Irrigation and Hydropower Generation

Baraa Jebbo; Taymoor A. Awchi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 64-69
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.10

The current research aims to build a simulation model to study the effect of Jazeera irrigation projects (North, East and South) water requirements on hydroelectric power generation from Mosul dam hydropower plant. The simulation was applied from January 1988 to December 2006 on a monthly basis. A simulation model was built utilizing (HEC-ResSim 3.0) Package, which showed high efficiency in representing and simulating the actual operation of the reservoir. Simulation model operation has been carried out through five scenarios with two cases of priority; the first was to maximize the hydroelectric power generation, and the second was to minimize the shortage in fulfilling the water requirements of Jazeera irrigation projects. The results showed that when the priority is given to meet the irrigation water requirements, the water deficit is decreased but the hydropower generation deficit is increased, and when the priority is to maximize the hydroelectric power generation, the hydropower generation increases, but the irrigation water is decreased. The study concluded that when the East and South Jazeera irrigation projects are completed and operated along with North Jazeera project, the reservoir would not be able to meet their requirements, in addition to an obvious shortage in hydroelectric power generation.

Dynamic Study of Carbon Dioxide Absorption Using Promoted Absorbent in Bubble Column Reactor

Safa A. Al-Naimi; Farah T. Jasim; Ahmed N. Kokaz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 70-78
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.11

The most common process to remove carbon dioxide from natural gas and the flue gasses is absorption into suitable solvents. Absorption of carbon dioxide are studied experimentally in this work using bubble column reactor (glass cylindrical (QVF) of 7.5 cm i.d. × 140 cm height), where different types of absorbent (30%MEA, 30%K2CO3), promoter types (organic(piperazine)and inorganic(amino acids)) and concentrations were examined over a wide range of gas flow rate cover homogeneous to transition flow regime at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The results showed that the dissolved gas undergoes a pseudo-first order reaction, and the optimum superficial velocity of gas given a higher conversion and rate of reaction at Ug=0.025 m/sec, at this velocity the reaction rate of monoethanolamine with carbon dioxide (94.1% conversion and RA = 7.75*10-3 Kmol/m3 .sec) is higher than reaction rate of potassium carbonate with carbon dioxide(29.3% conversion and RA = 2.73*10-3 Kmol/m3 .sec). Furthermore, the addition of promoters to the 30%K2CO3 absorbents enhanced the reaction between potassium carbonate with carbon dioxide and increased the reaction rate when increasing the concentration of promoters to the critical concentration. The results show that the piperazine is a better promoter from other types of the amino acid promoter used was 52.1% increase in carbonate conversion with carbon dioxide

Application of Microwave Heating in the Demulsification of Crude Oil Emulsions

Firdos M. Abdulla; Mohammed R. Ali; Jenan A. AL-Najar; Nedhal A. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.12

In recent times the formation of pre-processing water-in-crude emulsions in petroleum industries has led to some inherent challenges such as the reduction in the efficiency of oil recovery, high cost of operation and corrosion in pipes. Traditional ways of pulverizing the emulsions using heat and chemical approaches have many disadvantageous from both economic and environmental points of view. Microwave irradiation is an efficient method for the demulsification of the water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, encountered in refinery industries. The microwave technology is a costeffective way of emulsifying water-in-crude-oil emulsion. Two methods were used for conducting the demulsification performance test, i.e. chemical and microwave. The method of chemical demulsification using octylamine was found to be the best water separation efficiency achieved at 2.5 vol.% Octylamine with (35-65%) W/O emulsion, the separation touched to 90% within 3 days and the greatest oil separation efficiency attained at 2.5 vol.% Octylamine at the same ratio of W/O emulsion, the separation reached 91% within 3 days. The demulsification process efficiency increased by microwave, where the water separation rate reached to (100%) at 4 minutes with (35-65%) W/O emulsion. Light crude oils were used. The fundamental principles of formation, formulation and breaking of O/W emulsions in the microwave heating process were adequately elucidated using some physicochemical characterization techniques This further helps in the development of a cost-effective method of demulsifying the W/O emulsion. Water-in-crude oil emulsions of volume percentage ranges, i.e. (25-75%) and (35-65%) were adopted.

Air Pollution Effects in Some Plant Leaves Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics within Baghdad City. Iraq

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Israa M. Jasim; Abdul-Rahman A. AlKubaisi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 84-89
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.13

The present study examined the air pollutants effects in seven plant species leaves, Olea europea L., Zizphus spina-christi L. Desf., Conocarpus lancifolius Engl., Albizia lebbeck L. Benth., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Clerodendron inermis L. Graeth and Dodonaea viscasa Jacq., distribute within Baghdad city. The leaves sample were collected from May (2016) to April (2017) in five regions within Baghdad city, which are Karrada, Sadr City, Shoula and Mansur, as well as Baghdad tourist island as a control region. The Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbone monoxide (CO), Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and Suspended particulate matter (PM) were measured in all study regions. The present study results showed an increase in concentration of all air pollutants in the four study regions compared to Baghdad tourist island, (SO2) average was (0.56) ppm, while (NO2) average was (0.80) ppm, (CO) average was (27.69) ppm, (VOCs) average was (5.99) ppm, while (PM) average was (480.80) μg /m3. The morphological and anatomical characteristics include length, width, area, number of stomata; the number of epidermis cells, and stomatal index were measured in plant leaves. E. camaldulensis leaves were recorded highest length rate (11.03) cm, while highest width rate (5.51) cm and leaf area rate (49.63) cm2 were recorded in A. lebbeck leaves. The highest number of stomata and epidermal cells were also recorded in A. lebbeck leaves (101.25 and 738.85) in respectively. But highest stomatal index value was recorded in D. viscasa leaves (14.21).

Effect of Gamma Radiation on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Seed Germination

Sahar Abd; Soolaf A. Kathier; Emad A. Mahmmod

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 90-92
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.14

The grain legumes are the second most important economic crops attacked by many of storage pests, one of these pests is Cowpea seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus). Gamma radiation appears to be a potential alternative to chemicals control in stored products. Therefore, this research aims to study the effect of gamma radiation (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15, 0.18 and 0.21 (kGy) on eggs, larvae, pupae and seed germination. The results of this study showed that the irradiated eggs did not hatch. While the last larval stage was very sensitive to all doses of gamma rays, no adults emerged from larvae were exposed to 0.03 (kGy) or higher doses. In addition, the highest death percentages of pupae were 88% at 0.21(kGy). Finally, the results showed the same doses used in this study did not affect the rate of seed germination compared to control. This technique would help to improve using for other agriculture pests

The Influence of Recycled Crushing Strength of RC Beams under Repeated Loading

Mohammed A.E. Al Hamdani; Marawan M. Hamid; Nada M. Al Hussiny

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 93-100
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.15

This paper describes a study of the effect of crashed (recycle) concrete on reinforced concrete beams. Three-dimensionally nonlinear finite elements analysis has been used conducted the numerical investigations of the general study of recycling-beam. ANSYS.11.0 computer-program using in this paper. Solid65 using as element of concrete, link8 for steel. The compression strength of the concrete mix decrease due to the strength of crashing concert. It’s weaker than gravel aggregate, that lower strength due to weak of old mortar cement around the aggregate and due to crashed process. The percentage of decrease of the compressive strength equal to (59.8) % and deflection of beam increase due to weak of concrete and the load of initial crack, it’s lower than traditional concrete contains natural aggregate.

Biofilm Inhibitory Potential of Westiellopsis prolifica Extract Against Some Pathogenic Microorganisms

Neihaya Z. Heikmat; Ghaidaa H. Abd Ali; Shurooq L. Al-Razaq; Nada Z. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 101-108
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.16

Resistance of microorganisms to many kinds of antibiotics push towards using natural products to eliminate the biofilm. In this study, 7 different species of algae were identified, 3 species of Chlorophyta and 3 of Cyanophyta. Westiellopsis prolifica is considered a potent organism. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was determined 13 clear bands, and the main bands were carbohydrate (1200- 900 cm−1), protein (1660 and around 1540 cm−1) and lipid bands (1740 cm−1). Extracellular crude acetone extract from W. prolifica better than hexane extract and more efficient on negative gram bacteria than positive gram bacteria. Antibiofilm was conducted by Congo red Agar and Microtiter plate against bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp., Shigella sp., Proteus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). The highest inhibition was against Streptococcus sp. and the remaining ratio of biofilm was 0.7 %, while lower inhibition 33 % against C.albicans. The GC-MS analysis of the purified extract has identified many active compounds, mainly were 4-Trimethyl-1-hexene, Octadecane, Ethylene-14-Pentadecane, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Octadecadienoic acid, Octadecadienoyl chloride, and Phytol.

Heavy Metals Content in Several Imported Rice Crops (Oryza sativa) from the Local Markets

Basim H. Faraj; Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Athmar A.M. AlMashhady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 109-112
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.17

Rice crop may be subjected to several heavy metals contamination due to various causes such as contaminated irrigating water, fertilizers containing certain heavy metals and other agricultural applications. This work was designed to examine several heavy metals (Lead, Chromium, Arsenic and Copper) in rice crop imported from India, USA, Brazil, Thailand, Paraguay and Uruguay in addition to locally cultivated rice. Rice samples were collected from local markets and subjected to the examination of above heavy metal content using acidic digestive method and heavy metal ions were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. It has been found that these examined rice crops have shown significant variations in terms of heavy metal content and importing countries where in case of Lead ion, Iraqi rice had the highest mean (19.27 ± 0.25 mg/kg ) content while India 1 showed the lowest (9.51 ± 0.08 mg/kg) mean value. For rice Chromium content, it was found that USA rice gave the highest (4.02 ± 0.51 mg/kg) mean value and the lowest mean content (0.15 ± 0.02 mg/kg) was detected in the Iraqi rice. Regarding rice Arsenic content, all examined rice crops had As content varying from minimum mean value of 0.2 ± 0.012 mg/kg in India2 to a maximum value of 0.37 ± 0.021 mg/kg in India1. For Copper rice content, this study has found the Iraqi crop had the highest (4.50 ± 0.07 mg/kg)

Predictive Modeling of Multilayer Graphene Growth by Chemical Vapour Deposition on Co-Ni/Al2O3 Substrate using Artificial Neural Network

May A. Muslim; Zainab Yousif; Mohamed A. Abdel Ghany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 113-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.18

The uniqueness of multilayer graphene as extremely high carrier mobility, tune-able band gap and high elasticity has made it be considered as a high prospect engineering material that can be employed for several applications such as solar cells, field effect transistors, super-capacitors, batteries and sensors. In this study, the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for the predictive modeling of multilayer graphene (MLG) growth by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Co-Ni/Al2O3 substrate was investigated. Data comprises temperature, catalyst compositions, ethanol flowrates were generated using central composite experimental design and employed to obtain the MLG yield as the response. The data were subsequently used for predictive modeling using ANN. The findings show that the predictive values of the MLG yields were in good agreement with those obtained from the experimental runs having a coefficient of determination (R2 ) of 0.988.

Treatment of Crude Oil Spills in Water Resources by Using Biological Method

Ibtihaj A. Abdulrazzak; Mohammed H. Hafiz; Ali N. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 120-125
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.19

Biological treatment has definite to be an effective and excellent method for the removal of aquatic oil spills. It is competent of being used as the best treatment method for cleanup of oil spills. Being a potential technology, significant work needs to be done to improve the capabilities of bioremediation for oil contaminated-aquatic environment. Novel application of combined solvent extraction and two-phase biodegradation processes using Two-Liquid Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TLPPB) technique was proposed and developed to enhance the cleanup of high concentration of crude oil from aqueous phase using acclimated mixed consortiums in an anaerobic environment. Silicone oil was used as the organic extractive phase for being a water-immiscible, biocompatible and non-biodegradable. An application of one phase bioreactor was used, then “TLPPB” two-liquid phase partitioning bioreactor was sophisticated to decay hydrocarbons “crude oil” in this study) at concentration reach to 6000 mg/L. As the organic phase, Silicon oil was selected in TLPPB technique to hold the delivery of hydrocarbons in a liquid layer by absorbing method and after that transforming the pollution to the biological microorganisms. Based on TLPPB technique, the effectiveness of the organic layer “silicon oil” has been contrasted to the one-phase biological reactor. Then the result is completely treated of hydrocarbons pollutant to 100% was accomplished in the two-liquid phase partitioning bioreactor “TLPPB” contrasted to 69-78% treated efficiency of crude oil in the one-phase traditional biological reactor. Thus, the interpretation of “TLPPB” technique for crude oil treatment was estimated in terms of the salinity influence by using Tigris river water, and sea water samples. The rising rate of salinity in liquid layer causing reduction the microorganisms-activity and prohibit the amount of crude oil decay. Thus, this research mentions the possibility of TLPPB technique for consolidate transmission and the biodegradation of immiscible crude oil.

Evaluation of Water Treatment Residue as a Sorption Medium and its Application to Control Phosphate Level in Water

Mahmood M. Barbooti; Shaymaa S. Hasan; Mustafa Jassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 126-131
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.20

Wastewater treatment residual material, WTR, from a local drinking water facility in Baghdad, was evaluated as a potential medium for the removal of some unwanted species from water. The material was first characterized by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectral analysis prior to its use as an adsorbent. The x-ray revealed that the material is a calcium based water treatment residue mixed with silica and impurities of oxides like MgO and Fe2O3. The adsorption characteristics of the material were evaluated by studying the adsorption of methylene blue. The cation exchange capacity and the surface area had values of 10.5 mmol per100 g and 87.5 m2 .g -1 , respectively. The sorption capacity of the material was applied to control the phosphate concentration in water. Time and adsorbent amount have played significant roles in the removal of phosphate from water. An adsorption capacity had a value of 1.6 mg PO4 3- .g -1 of WTR.

Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete as Sustainable Solution for Defected Buildings

Mays F. Alrubaie; Dalya H. Hameed; Shakir A. Salih; Galib M. Habeeb; Waleed A. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 132-138
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.21

One of the new concrete technology applications that had to get increased importance as repairing and retrofitting technique is slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON). This research aims to investigate some of the mechanical properties of SIFCON and its role in improving the useful life of normal concrete. The research consists of two parts; in the first part, three mixes are prepared with 0%, 1.5%, and 6% volume fraction steel fiber content. Compressive strength, flexural strength, total absorption and apparent density tests are made for each mix. In the second part, a composite section of normal concrete and SIFCON mix with 6% steel fiber is prepared. Different thicknesses of SIFCON layer had been casted to assess its benefits in repair and/or to strengthen of defected buildings. Flexural strength, toughness, ductility and load-deflection curve are examined for the composite sections. The results showed that the flexural strength of SIFCON with 6% steel fiber content increased up to 600% and 200% compering to those recorded with the reference mix and 1.5% steel fiber concrete respectively. The results also indicated that the increase of SIFCON layer thickness would improve the mechanical properties of the composite section. Also, the maximum increase in flexural strength was greater than four times the reference mix. Better behavior is also recorded in load deflection and toughness of SIFCON composite section.

Evaluation Biosorption and Recovery of Zn, Cr And Ni Ions From Industrial Wastewater Using Beads of Banana Peel Powder Constrained by Calcium Alginate

Sufyan M. Shartooh; Sedik A.K. Al-Haiyaly

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 139-144
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.22

Plant wastes have been successfully applied as biosorbent materials of several heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater due to the obvious capability of removing significant quantities of heavy metal ions. In the current work, banana peel powder was constrained by calcium alginate for polymerization and bead formation and subjected to both biosorption and recovery processes of Zn, Cr and Ni ions from untreated wastewater, collected from general state electrical manufacturing company in Baghdad-Iraq, using designed laboratory treatment unite. It has been found that the capacity of immobilized banana peel was significantly higher in bioremoving Zn, Cr and Ni ions than that of calcium alginate where mean biosorption capacities of Zn, Cr and Ni ions was 74.0 ± 2.3 mg/l, 83.0 ± 0.0 mg/l and 71.0 ± 1.8 mg/l respectively while in case of calcium alginate, these values were 25.0 ± 2.2 mg/l for Zn 34.0 ± 1.3 mg/l for Cr and 19.0 ± 0.9 mg/l for Ni. This study has found that biosorption capacities of heavy metal ions by immobilized banana beads, used in laboratory treatment unite, from industrial wastewater was much efficient where this lab designed unite had shown significant capacity of such beads in bioremoving all examined heavy metal ions by giving higher biosorption capacities which were 86.6 % in case of Zn ions and 100% for both Cr and Ni ions. In the recovery of these heavy metal ions from biosorbent immobilized banana beads, it was found that the percentages of recovered metal ions, from these beads used in laboratory unite, were very high ranging from 88.0 % in case of Cr ions to 90.5% for Zn ions while this recovery percentage was 88.7% for Ni ions.

Effect of Compost and Humic Acid on Potato Growth and Quality

Abbas Kh. Mijwel; Adel N. Abed Al-Redha Abed Al-Redha; Tarif H. Bresim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 145-148
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.23

an experiment was carried out in Karbala on 10/9/2014 using the compost of palm residues at four levels (0, 20, 30, 40) tan.h-1 and the humic acid in three concentrations (0,1.5, 3)ml.L-1 to determine the effect of these factors and their interaction in growth and quality characteristics of potato and find organic fertilizer combination instead of chemical fertilizers. The addition of the compost of the residue palm has a significant and positive effect on all studied traits (Number of branches.plant-1, Plant height, percent of the dry weight of vegetative growth, percent of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in tubers, ratio of total soluble solids in tubers, percent of starch in tubers, the market yield of the plant), While not affecting on not valid for the marketing year. Spraying of the humic acid caused a significant increase in all the mentioned characteristics except for the percent of phosphorus in the tubers and the not valid for marketing yield. Interaction between palm waste compost and humic acid had a significant effect on the studied indicators except for the percent of phosphorus in the tubers and the not valid for marketing yield of the plant.

Comparison between Iraqi Gauges and TRMM Rainfall Data Over Middle Euphrates Region During Period from 1998 to 2017

Imzahim Abdulkareem; Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Alaa G. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 149-156
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.24

The aim of this paper is evaluated and compares between Iraqi gauges in the Middle Euphrates region and TRMM rainfall data during the period from 1998 to 2017. Middle Euphrates Region, whose Area is 26611 km2 was selected as a study area. Two sets of Iraqi data gauges and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) average monthly rainfall data were used for analysis. Rainfall data were acquired from two sources, Iraqi Meteorological Organization and Seismology (IMOAS) and Giovanni website to download TRMM v7 0.25-degree data. Data collected from five stations in the study area and these stations are, Dewaniya, Hilla, Karbala, Najaf, and Semawa. Statistical analysis indices such as bias, root mean square error (RMSE), and R-Square were used to comparison between data. Monthly and seasonally comparison approaches have been used to understand the relationships, trends and error propagations between two data sets for five gauges’ station. The final results of monthly comparison approach were illustrated that some of the months have good agreements for each to other and other months have medium and weak agreements between two data sets in all five stations which mentioned above. Also, the results of seasonally comparison approach were illustrated that some of the seasons have good agreements for each to other and other seasons have medium and weak agreements between two data sets in all five stations which mentioned above. There are high values of Bias and RMSE between some months and some seasons of two data sets in all stations; this meaning there are high shifting between them.

Adsorption Study of Nitrate Anions by Different Materials Using Fixed Bed Column

Anaam A. Sabri; Noor S. Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 156-162
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.25

MCM-41is, a mesoporous material with a hexagonal structure, has a high surface area, high pore vol., and low mass density. Continuous adsorption fixed bed of NH2-MCM-4I adsorbent was utilized for the removal of nitrate anions from aqueous solutions. The effect of adsorbent weight (0.5, 1, 2 gm), flow rate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 ml/min) and initial NO3 - concentrations (50, 75, 100 mg/l) on breakthrough curves were studied. It was found that breakthrough time increases with increasing column bed height and decreases with increasing NO3 - inlet concentration and flow rate. The highest removal percentage (75.2%) achieved at inlet concentration of 100 mg/L of NO3 - anion, 1gm adsorbent weight and 1.5 mL/min flow rate. Thomas and Yan adsorption models showed a good fit to the experimental data. Removal of nitrate anion by traditional activated carbon was also investigated and the results were compared with the nitrate removal by NH2- MCM-41. It was concluded that NH2-MCM-41 is more efficient in nitrate removal than activated carbon and the maximum removal percentage of nitrate anions by traditional activated carbon was found to be 55.8%.

Effect of Operating Parameters on Degradation of Eriochrome black T Dye

Walaa Sabre; Sheymaa A. Mohammed; Ahmed H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 163-167
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.26

Of the effect, the process parameters on photocatalytic degradation Eriochrome black T( EBT) dye has been degraded in a batch reactor under UV light in heterogeneous slurry utilizing various concentrations of two semiconductors commercial catalysts (Titanium dioxide and Zinc Oxide). The parameter has been studied (catalyst type, catalyst concentration, pH of dye solution and initial dye concentration). The results showed that the best dose of TiO2 and ZnO are 1.5 and 1 g/l respectively and the optimum pH (6 and 11) using TiO2 and ZnO respectively. Moreover, the comparative assessment of the photocatalytic efficiency was made for different photocatalytic powder. It was noticed that the best photocatalytic efficiency as ZnO > TiO2 . The investigational results were also assessed in expressions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reductions to study treatment efficiency. Maximum COD removed was observed to be around 95%. The decolorization and the oxidation efficiencies could achieve 95% and 88% for ZnO and TiO2 respectively at the optimum conditions for both catalysts (30 ppm Eriochrome black T dye solution).

Comparison of the Trends of Mean Temperature and Rainfall Rate in the City of Samawah (Iraq) with Global Climate Change

Athier Hussin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 168-174
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.27

Increasing earth temperature due to the high level of greenhouse gas has affected the other climate elements on the earth surface. However, there was a little consideration of the differences between the global and local scale of climate change. This research included a comparison between the global climate change and the changes of climate elements that happened in Samawah city. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the increasing annual mean temperature globally and the annual mean temperature in the city. For example, when comparing the increase in annual mean temperature of the city for the period from 2006 to 2015 (ten years) with annual mean temperature globally based on the average of mean temperature for the previous 30 years (1975-2005), we note that there was increasing for the years 2010 and 2011 is almost four times and it was double for the years 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 higher than the increasing of annual mean temperature for the same years globally. Also, the mean temperature of the hot months of the summer season (JJA) in the city increased significantly compared to the rest of the months of the year and it is quite different from the change that occurred in the monthly mean temperature globally. Moreover, the annual average of precipitation in the city has fluctuated significantly due to the changes in climate and contrast to the increase in its global average. All these changes in the climate of the city will inevitably have an impact on the environment such as increasing drought, desertification and dust storms.

Study the Catalytic Oxidation of Phenol in both Baskets Stirred Tank and Packed Bed Reactors

Ghayda Y. Al-Kindi; Faris H. Al Ani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 175-185
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.28

The aim of this study, using five types of AL-Fe pillared Iraqi clay to study catalyst wet air oxidation to oxide phenol from synthesis’s wastewater and study the limitation criteria in control of operating conditions. Two types of reactor (Batch and packed bed) used to study operation conditions and the best conditions result from Batch reactor was pressure 3.2Mpa, temperature 130⁰C, phenol concentration 500mg/l and pH 3.9, for packed bed reactor with AL-Fe pillared clays of Anbar-Erbil, Mosul, due to high phenol removal, in up-flow mode. The results show that phenol removal is 98-97.8-95% for Erbil-MosulAnbar respectively, when the LHSV used in reactor 0.6 h-1 , and gas flow 0.28cm/s, also it can be seen that the limitation criteria in control of operating conditions, and Mosul pillared consider more stable and activity than Erbil and Anbar.

The Effect of Using Multi Types of Mineral Admixtures on Some Properties of Lightweight Self-Compacting Concrete

Waleed A. Razaq; Qais J. Freih; Shubbar J. Al Obaidey

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 186-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.29

The main objective of this research was studying the effects of using multi types of mineral admixtures as high reactivity Attapulgite (HRA), high reactivity Metakaolin (HRM) and fly ash (FA) on some rheological and mechanical properties of lightweight self - Compacting concrete (LWSCC), when were used as a partially replacement by weight of cement. The results showed that using of (HRA) and (HRM) increased the superplasticizer (SP) dosage, while (FA) with spherical particles reduced the (SP) dosage relative to reference mix (Ref. mix) to get the same slump flow target value. The optimum content for (HRA) used in this study was 10 %, and the percentages of increment in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength relative to (Ref.mix) were (10.0%, 12.2%, 11.15% and 12.3%) and ( 8.8%, 17.46%, 16.34% and 14.66%) for 7, 28, 56 and 90 days respectively. Using of (FA) reduced early age strength, but long term strength increased with (FA) content increases. LWSCC mix contained 10% (HRM) showed a better mechanical properties than both (HRA) and (FA) LWSCC mixes, and the percentages of increment when cement was replaced with 10 % (HRM) relative to (Ref.mix) were (15.0%, 17.6%, 13.9% and 15.7%) and (16.0%, 24.2%, 22.2% and 21.6%) at 7, 28, 56, and 90 days for compressive strength and splitting tensile strength respectively.

Response of Bread Wheat to Abscisic Acid Under Water Stress

Shatha A. Ahmed; Emad Kh. Hashim; Ahmed S. Al-Taie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 195-203
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.30

Field experiments were carried out at the Field Crops Research Station of the Agricultural Research Office - Abu Ghraib, during Seasons of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 to study the effect of four concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) on some of the physiological characteristics of cultivar bread wheat (Bohooth10) under water stress. The experiments were applied according to randomized complete block design (RCBD) by split plot arrangement with three replicates. Water treatments, which occupied the main plots, included four water irrigation quantities, which were irrigated when depletion 50%, 70% and 40% of available water, in addition to rainy treatment (germination irrigation + rainfed), while ABA seeds soaking concentration, which occupied the sub-plots, were 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/Lt. The results showed superiority of 50% and 70% treatments in the grain yield character which gave 4.65, 4.82, 4.61 and 4.87 ton/ha for both seasons respectively, while rainy treatment has given higher of proline (5.13 and 7.39) micromole/g and peroxidase (45.77 and 49.14) absorption unit/g for both seasons respectively. Increasing of ABA concentration up to 0.75 mg/Lt lead to raise the relative water content (77.41 and 77.62%), ratio of soluble sugars (15.29 and 15.35)% and grain yield (3.61 and 3.92) ton/ha for both seasons respectively. We can conclude that there was a significant response for ABA concentrations under water stress to improve growth and yield wheat.