Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 37, 2C

Volume 37, 2C, May 2019, Page 204-302

Research Paper

Oil Removal from Oilfield Produced Water, North Rumaila by Combination CoagulationFlocculation and Microfiltration Technique

Thamer J. Mohammed; Eman Sh. Awad; Thabit A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 204-208
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.1

The Southern Oil Company, which is operated in North Rumaila oilfield in Basrah/ Iraq, is one of the important companies which produced huge amounts of produced oilfield water. The aim of this study is to treat the produced water by hybrid methods: the process of coagulation-flocculation and microfiltration technique (ceramic membrane) to remove the oil content and improve the water quality to meet the allowable limit of reinjection into the reservoir. Poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), and Ferric Chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) coagulants were used separately and in combination with cationic polyelectrolyte (PE). After produced water was treated with different doses of coagulant, it was passed through the Microfiltration technique/ ceramic membrane (0.5µm) to reach the allowable limit for reinjection. It was found that the best value of oil content after passing through ceramic membrane is 0.2 mg/L at FeCl3.6H2O dose (10 mg/L) combined with PE dose (0.6 mg/L), which was less than the allowable limit for re-injection, (5) ppm.

Removal of Reactive Red Dye (Cibacron FN-R) from Synthetic Wastewater by Using Natural Substance

Safaa N.H. Al-Hussaini; Eman A. Mohammed; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 209-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.2

Synthetic textile wastewater was simulated by using Cibacron reactive red dye FN-R. Pomegranate peels were used as adsorbents to remove the red dye by applying a continuous fixed bed column reactor system having a filter with a diameter of 30mm and a length of 110mm. The effect of different parameters on the removal efficiency was studied; pH levels (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12), flow rate (27, 45, and 60 ml/min), initial dye concentration (10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/l), and the contact time (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min). It was found that the optimum pH level was within the range of 6 to 6.5. In addition, the removal efficiency was found to increase with decreasing the flow rate and the initial concentration of dye and increasing the contact time. The maximum percentage removal of dye obtained was 90% at pH, flow rate, initial concentration of dye ,and the contact time equal to 6, 27 ml/min, 10 mg/l, and 180 min respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The following equations were found for Langmuir and Freundlich respectively; Y=0.017X + 1.110 and Y=0.810X + 0.083. The corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.961 and 0.994, respectively, indicating that the Freundlich isotherm model being more representing to the data obtained in this study.

Experimental Study of 2-Amino-5-(4- nitrophenyl)-1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole for MS in HCl Solution

Talib K. Abed; Khalida F. Al-Azawi; Shaimaa H. Jaber; Ahmed A. Al-Amiery; Shaimaa B. Al-Baghdadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 214-218
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.3

The present work aims to study the inhibition performance of new organic inhibitor namely ANTD “2-amino-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3,4- thiadiazole” on corrosion of mild steel (MS) in HCl environment at the concentration of 1.0 M through using weight loss techniques. Weight lost measurements demonstrates the presence of a film on MS surface in existence of organic substance. The inhibition performance of ANTD at various concentrations for mild steel increases with increasing concentration and with an increased in the immersion time and decreased with raising temperatures degrees. The optimal inhibition efficiency of (ANTD), 82%, was achieved for mild steel when immersed with the highest utilized concentration for 6 hrs.

Selecting the Potential Water Harvesting Sites Using Fuzzy GIS-Based Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation in Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq

Imzahim Abdulkareem; Hussein H. Karim; Nadia A. Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 219-226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.4

Remote sensing and GIS-based techniques were used to select the potential sites for water harvesting in Salah Al-Din Governorate, northern Baghdad/ Iraq. Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) was used where seven criteria layers have been evaluated to identify water-harvesting sites, such as slope, stream order, precipitation, potential evaporation rate, soil type, distance to roads and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This method helps in locating water-harvesting sites in suitable places as well as improves the management of water resources in the study area. Fuzzy logic modeling was used to standardize the criteria layers, and the Fuzzy Gamma overlay was used to combine these layers together in ArcGIS 10.5. Specific criteria were used to unify all these layers. Finally, the final suitability map for the potential water harvesting sites in Salah Al-Din area was produced were twelve potential waterharvesting sites within the study area have been identified according to the specific criteria used for this purpose and have a high potential for water harvesting. This map will provide optimum sites to build dams in order to store the water, especially in drought-stricken areas. The results illustrate that the GIS can be used as a decision-making tool in water resources management in a scientific approach, which makes the decision making easier and accurate.

Framework for Solid Waste Management in Steel Fabrication

Luma A.H. Al-Kindi; Wadood K.Kh. Alghabban

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 227-236
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.5

Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a term used to determine greatest energy-efficient and least-polluting ways to deal with the different components and items of community’s Solid Waste stream. The solid waste could be either in solid or liquid form. Solid waste could be defined as, ”Any material that is not required by the owner, fabricator or processor.” Solid Waste could be classified as Domestic waste, Industrial waste, Waste from oil plant, Electronic-waste, Construction waste, Agricultural waste, Food treating waste, Bio-medical waste, and Nuclear waste. Due to social and environmental significances, waste reduces, reuse, and recycle have become necessities in minimizing the environmental damage that could happen through waste disposal. Steel products may be used in various construction and industrial applications, such as machines, bridges, buildings, vessels, highways, machinery, tools, and automobiles. It is estimated that the world’s annual production of Steel is 1500 Million tons and that 85% of annual steel production is recycled worldwide. In this research, a framework for steel fabrication waste management is suggested consists of three stages; these stages are scrap classification stage, reusable scrap stage, and non-reusable scrap stage. The framework is applied in one of the Iraqi Ministry of Oil Companies; the Heavy Engineering Equipment Company, which is an important industrial company specialized in steel fabrication and construction work.

Geochemical Evaluation of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, and Mn) in Sediment of Shatt Al-Basrah, Iraq

Zahraa Z. Al-Janabi; Shahed R. Zaki; Jinnan S. AlHassany; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Eman. S. Awad; Afrah A. Maktoof

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 237-241
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.6

In this study, the sediment of Shatt Al-Basrah canal, was evaluated to illustrate the distribution of 4 heavy metals Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn in sediments collected from 5 sites. The assessment of heavy metals was conducted using three indices; the geoaccumulation index (I-geo), the enrichment factor (E.F.) and Pollution Index (PI). According to I-geo, the sediments collected from all sampling locations were unpolluted by Cd, Cr and Fe, where their values are less than 0 (<0), except Mn ranged between 0.98 to 1.37, the Igeo values for Mn show that sediments of Shatt Al-Basrah are unpolluted to moderately polluted for all sampling locations. Based on The enrichment factor, the sediment of Shatt Al-Basrah canal are classified as followed; significant enrichment for Cd, moderate enrichment to significant enrichment for Cr and deficiency to minimal enrichment for Mn. PI, which is based on individual metal Concentrations, shows that all sampling sites have no pollution effect for Cd, Cr and Mn, except Fe, which cause Slightly pollution affect in all site.

Textile Dye Removal by Activated Date Seeds

Seroor A. Khaleef; Huda T. Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 242-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.7

The objective of the study was to prepare activated carbon from date seeds (ADS) and use it as a medium for textile dye adsorption. Batch adsorption of reactive green dye showed that dye adsorption depends on the contact time, the dye concentration, and the pH equilibrium. Different concentrations of the prepared activated carbon were used with different dye concentrations and evaluated for dye removal efficiency. The maximum dye adsorption in this study was achieved after 270 min at a pH range of 5-9. In this study, the functional groups in the prepared ADS were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) while the crystal size was determined using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equation were used to study the adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and dye desorption while the pseudo-second-order kinetics was used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data of the reactive green dye on the prepared ADS. The dyes’ adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, which is adjudged as the best in adsorption studies. The equilibrium data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model. Conclusively, the adsorption of dye onto the prepared ADS was observed to be an endothermic physical adsorption process.

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Asplenium Species (Spleenworts) Extracts from Northern Districts of Iraq

Abass M. Ismail; Talib O. Al-Khasreji; Bahram K. Maulood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 248-251
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.8

The main objective of the present investigation was to ascertain of different phytochemicals in two ferns: Asplenium scolopendrium L. from Malakan- Erbil district and A. trichomanes L. from Tweela-Sulaymaniyah district during Spring 2016. Antioxidant activity and total flavonoids contents were determined in methanol extracts. In qualitative analysis, the active compounds such as alkaloids, tanins, saponins and flavonoids were screened. In quantitative analysis, total flavonoids were quantified 234.7 µg /ml with IC50 of 113 mg/ml in A. scolopendrium but in A. trichomanes total flavonoids 1061µg/ml. with IC50 of 2.271 mg/ml comparison with Ascorbic acid IC50 of 0.0186 mg/ml as positive control.

Electrode Wear Evaluation in E.D.M Process

Ali Abbar Khleifa; Osama S. Sabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 252-257
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.9

Electric Discharge Machining (E.D.M) is a non-conventional machining process and has a larger extent of application in the manufacturing industry due to its accuracy. E.D.M simply uses an electrical spark between the workpiece and tool in the presence of medium dielectric to erode the workpiece in a controlled manner. This study investigates the enhance the various performance parameters measured in E.D.M process using Tagushi Technique. The main goals are to maximize the removal rate of material M.R.R and minimizing the wear rate of tool TWR.

Environmental Impact Assessment of Halfaya Oilfield Project

Amin D. Thamir; Souzan H. lafta; Faras Q. Mohammed; Mahdi M. Hanon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 258-267
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.10

Implement the necessary measures is necessary to limit the potential damages and risks resulting from oil and gas exploration activities to take the necessary precautions and arrangements to protect the land, air, waters and the groundwater basins from pollution and damage. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process is used to ensure that environmental and social sustainability considerations are included in decisions regarding the Projects considering the possible impacts associated with the proposed Centralized Waste Facility (CWF). The EIA was undertaken with consideration of the environmental standards and guidelines to determine the environmental impact assessment of Halfaya Oilfield; this facility is located in Missan Province in southern Iraq, south east of Amarah City. The Project has been assessed with respect to the applicable Federal or Client standard. Where appropriate, international standards have been considered alongside Federal and Client standards for reference. The EIA commenced on the 13th of October 2014 and is expected to last a total of 9 months. The classification of wastes is made using the EU European Waste Classification (EWC) codes; these codes describe whether the material is hazardous, non-hazardous, or inert. The work is split by where the waste arises, and then there are categories and sub-categories in each part. CPE has confirmed that there are no naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) arising from drilling activities at Halfaya. At the concept design stage for treatment, storage and disposal of each of the r

Cement Based Solidification/Stabilization Leaching Performances of Selected Heavy Metal Ions under Different pH Extractions

Basim A. Hussain A. Hussain; Shahlaa E. Ebrahim; Abbas H. Sulaymon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 268-274
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.11

Liquid to solid partitioning as a function of pH leaching Procedure LSP EPA method 1313 was carried out to test the effectiveness , performance and efficiency of the cement-based solidification / stabilization (S/S) of heavy metals contaminated sand samples using Ordinary Portland Cement OPC type A . Two cement based mix designs ( 7 and 25 % ) have been applied to (S/S) sand contaminated samples with different heavy metal ions ( Pb , Cu , Cr , and Cd ) having the following concentrations ( 500 , 1500 and 3000 mg / kg ). Fixed water to cement ratio of 0.45 was maintained for all the experiments. Effective retention levels for the heavy metal ions was achieved using a 25 % OPC mix ratio to (S/S) the contaminated samples even when the extraction solutions were of pH levels as low as 2. Leaching experiments showed that as the pH level of the extraction solution is reduces and as the OPC content in the (S/S) samples is reduced the more heavy metal ions that can leach out. Up to 80 % of chromium, cadmium, lead, and copper ions leachability can be prevented when higher cement content is introduced to the solidification / stabilization process under the same pH extraction. Acidic extraction effects and solubilized the Calcium – Silica – Hydrate (C-S-H) gel that is created by the OPC binder, which holds, and contain the heavy metal ions and thus results in more release of those ions into the extraction solutions. The alkaline environments provided by the cement binder are believed to have participated in the precipitation of several metal ions such as cadmium and lead io, leading to their less detection in the leaching extracts. Alkaline extraction experiments (pH 8-13) showed that the mobility of the metal ions under the same experimental conditions followed the order of pb> Cr > Cu > Cd in samples of various cement contents.

Synthesis and Study of Silver Nanoparticles Using Iraqi and Indian Lawsonia inermis Plant and their Catalytic Performance in Degradation of Organic Pollutant

Bassam A.R. Alabdul Aziz A.R. Alabdul Aziz; Ahmed M. Sadda; Thuraya M. Ibrahim; Zainab T.Y. Al-Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 275-280
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.12

In this work, we depict the cheap, friendly environment, an unreported and easy methodology for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the extract of leaf concentrate of Lawsonia inermis as a green, reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles display exclusive physical characteristics, which have appealed serious research attention due to their essential uses. In present work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized for environment uses by means of a completely green biosynthetic process using Lawsonia inermis flowers extract (henna). The structure, as well as properties of silver nanoparticles, was investigated with UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) and zeta potential. The maximum peak absorption by using UV-visible spectroscopic analysis was found at 460and 495nm, which point to the production of silver nanoparticles. Usual slight particle diameter that is determined by SEM was found to (10-46nm). Furthermore, zeta potential investigation shown that silver nanoparticles have good stability. EDX analysis also displays the presentation of a silver element. The methylene The catalytic effectiveness using light (LED) with silver nanoparticles was additionally researched in catalytic degradation of methylene blue dye. blue dye degrades 16 - 24.8% within 40 min for Iraqi & Indian henna produced better catalytic activity because of smaller particle size of silver, which is less than (10 ) nm in Indian henna

Diclofenac Removal from Wastewater by Iraqi Pillared Clay

Faris H. Al Ani; Ghayda Y. AL-Kindi; Noor Kh. Al-Bidri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 281-288
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.13

This study deals with the removal of Pharmaceutical pollutants such as Diclofenac, which caused hazardous pollutant for human health, from aqueous solution. The aim of this study is an investigation to remove the diclofenac from synthesis wastewater by using of pillared clay that made from Iraqi clay (ALAnbar clay) as adsorbent by using both batch and packed bed reactor to study kinetic model. The experimental work in batch reactor using different parameter (diclofenac, pillared clay and pH) in four beakers for 3 hours in jar test instrument , from the result show pH is the important factor effect on the adsorption process and also show diclofenac removal decreased with increasing pH values, but in constant all parameter effect of the initial concentration of diclofenac in the adsorption process show removal of diclofenac increasing with increasing the amount of adsorbent dosage up to 1000 mg. additional, the result of experimental work in packed bed reactor with different variables such as (initial concentration, flow rate and bed depth) for 6 hours, show the best condition of bed depth is 2 cm, initial concentration 625 mg /l and flow rate 25 h/l.

Impact of a Bright Nickel Interlayer on the Performance of Solar Absorber Nano Coatings Deposited by Electroplating on Copper Substrate

Mohammed J. Kadihm; Khalid A. Sukkar; Ahmed S. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 289-295
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.14

In this, work, a layer of bright nickel was deposited on the copper substrate using electroplating technique watts bath, before copper nanoparticles (CuNP) Evaporation via physically vapor deposition. The improvement of the solar absorber using CuNP and CuNP, combined with bright nickel, was found to be well than CuNP singly. Bright nickel improved the thermal stability of the absorber. Also the other optical properties absorption, emissivity slight decrease from (93% to 87%0) in another hand thermal conductivity was evaluated using hot disk analyzer with a good improvement obtain by CuNP( 89%) deposited on copper substrate while it decreases with percentage18.8% in the presence of bright nickel combined with CuNP, other Characteristics like structure and phases of coating layers achieve using XRD, topographic was obtained using AFM and SEM.

Application of Wheat Husk in Color Removal of Textile Wastewater

Mohamed I. Mohammed; Anaam A. Sabri; Eman J. Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 296-302
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.15

Adsorption is the most efficient technique used to remove organic pollutants from wastewater. Dyes represent one of the pollutants that may remove by adsorption. The textile industry used dyes for colorization of fibers and always generates a considerable amount of colored wastewater. In present work, the removal of Malachite green (MG) dye pollutant from synthetic wastewater onto mesoporous Wheat husk (WH) was studied in batch adsorption systems. The characterization for the prepared wheat husk was studied by, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The batch experiments were carried out to measure the removal efficiency of MG as a function of contact time, initial concentration (25- 135mg/L), pH (2-13) and adsorbent dose (1-7 g/L). The equilibrium was achieved within 8 hours. The equilibrium adsorption data of MG dye on wheat husk adsorbent were analyzed using isotherm models and the adsorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first and second order. The adsorption isotherm results indicated a better fitting obtained by the Langmuir (R2=0.995) than Freundlich (R2= 0.883) and the adsorption formation of the monolayer could be described. Adsorption Kinetic results were fitted better by Pseudosecond order(0.9886) than Pseudo first order (0.984). The properties obtained make WH an ideal adsorbent for treatment of MG dye from wastewater, besides, to develop some environment-friendly and low-priced material is also the crucial work.