Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 37, 7A

Volume 37, 7A, July 2019, Page 222-301


Research Paper

Monitoring of Agricultural Drought in the Middle Euphrates Area, IraqUsing Landsat Dataset

Imzahim A. Alwan; Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Alaa G. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 222-226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.1

This study was conducted to monitor the agricultural drought in
the Middle Euphrates area, Iraq during the period from 1988 to 2018.
Multispectral Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images were used. The images
dated 1988, 1993, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2018, which obtained during
growth months of plants (January, February, March, November, and
December).A computerized drought monitoring was adopted using ERDAS
Imagine 2015, ENVI 3.2, and ArcGIS 10.5 environments to process and
analysis the data. The spectral indices, which used in this study were: The
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition
Index (VCI). The change analysis presented in this study is based on the
statistics extracted from the six resultant drought maps. The final results
were illustrated that drought area in the region had a noticeable increase
compared with no drought area. The results revealed that percentage of nodrought area ranged between (7%) and (17%) during the period from 1988
to 2018. The extremely and severely drought classes recorded high
percentage followed by moderately and mild drought in the region. From
this study can be concluded that there is a high rate of drought in the
region, especially in its southern and western parts.

Using Microbial Desalination Cell to Treat Iraqi Wastewater

Talib R. Abbas; Majid A. Dixon; Mustafa Hussein Al-Furaiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 227-234
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.2

A Three-chambers MDC was made using three identical cubical
plexi-glass sections. Each chamber has an effective volume of 35 cm3. An anion
exchange membrane (AEM) was used to separate the anode from the
desalination chambers while a cation exchange membrane (CEM) was used to
separate the cathode from the desalination chambers. Two graphite sheets were
used as anode and cathode electrodes. Biotic experiments have included aircathode MDC fed with synthetic municipal wastewater, Bio-cathode MDC in
which the cathode chamber was inoculated with microalgae as an oxygen
source and air-cathode MDC was fed with floated oil layer in the anode
chamber as an organic source. Maximum power density obtained from the
MDC was 121 mW/m2. The corresponding current density was 410 mA/m2.
Maximum power density obtained in this study was in consistency with that
presented in previous studies. Maximum coulombic efficiency and charge
efficiency achieved were 9% and 165% respectively. The results of this study
confirmed the validity of using MDC technology to treat municipal wastewater
as well as oil, desalinate brackish water and generate electric power
simultaneously. Moreover, the results revealed the possibility of using mixed
culture algae, available in the Iraqi environment, in the cathode chamber as an
oxygen source to develop more energy efficient MDC. Further study deals with
different system configurations and different operating conditions are needed.

Investigation of External and Internal Inversion for Aluminum Tube with Various Die Parameters Effect

Basim M. Fadhil; Ava Ali Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 235-240
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.3

Finite element modeling has been conducted to investigate the
effect of die radius fillet, tube wall thickness, and friction coefficient on both
external and internal inversion for
the
aluminum tube. A 3D model was used
to build the contact pair for the a
luminum tube and the steel
die
. Due to the
axial symmetry, a 45
o
sector for the contact pair has been chosen. It has been
found that there is an important role for those parameters to govern the
inversion process and the mode of deformation beside the valu
e of the
applied force. No local buckling was seen in the external inversion in
contrast with internal inversion. A good correlation for current results with
experimental one that has been got by others.

Enhanced Solution of Inverse Kinematics for Redundant Robot Manipulator Using PSO

Hind Z. Khaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 241-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.4

Kinematics of the robot is divided into two parts: the forward
kinematics, which evaluates the end-effector’s position from joint angles, and the
inverse kinematics, which demonstrates the joint angles from the end-effector's
position. The solution of the inverse kinematics problem is too difficult and
complicated for the redundant robot arm manipulator. A Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO) algorithm is an effective method to solve global optimization
problems. This paper presents the solution of inverse kinematics problem of a
three-link redundant manipulator robot arm using PSO without using the inverse
kinematics equations. The circle, square and triangle generated trajectories using
PSO are enhanced as compared with the trajectories of other works. The
enhanced PSO algorithm is successfully found the best generating three joint
angles and the best generating end-effector's position of a three-link robot arm.
Then according to these joints and positions the circle, square and triangle path
trajectories, results are smoother than the path trajectories of other work. This
enhanced solution of inverse kinematics using PSO algorithm is too fast due to
the short elapsed time in every iteration of trajectory. Besides that, these
velocities results have been given evaluated and give an indication that the threelink robot is moving fast during the PSO algorithm. The elapsed time of circle
trajectory equals to 20.903981 seconds, the elapsed time of square trajectory
equals to 11.747171 seconds and the elapsed time of triangle trajectory equals to
15.729663 seconds. MATLAB R2015b program is used in order to simulate all
results. The main benefit of this work is to solve two problems: 1) inverse
kinematics is too complex equations of the three-link robot. The solutions of best
joint angles using PSO are computed within joint limits without using inverse
kinematics equations. 2) Another problem, this work is enhanced three
trajectories with respect to the best joint angles and reaches 96% percent as
compared with another work. The error is too small according to the start and
goal PSO generated points for each trajectory.

Torsional Behavior of Solid and Hollow Core Self Compacting Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Fibers

Tareq S. Al-Attar; Sarmad S. Abdul Qader; Hind A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 248-255
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.5

Torsion of structural members and the behavior of steel fiber self- compacting reinforced concrete became the area of interest for many researchers nowadays. The experimental program of the present work consists of casting nine reinforced self-compacting concrete beams in three groups. Each group consists of three beams with the dimensions of 200×300×1500 mm. The first beam has a solid cross-section, the second beam has a hollow core with the dimensions of 60×120×1500mm and the last beam has a hollow core with the dimensions of 80×180×1500mm. The steel fiber contents were 0, 0.5 and 1.0 % by volume for first, second and third groups respectively. The torsional angle of twist versus torsional moment (torque) of each beam was found during the experiments, and the effect of variables, fibers volume fraction and section geometry, on this relationship was investigated. Moreover, the fresh and hardened properties of concrete were carried out using several tests, which included slump flow, L-Box, compressive strength, tensile strength, and finally the torsion test. The current results showed that the addition of steel fibers has improved the torsional strength for all beams and the fibers were more effective in hollow core sections than in the solid ones.

Assessing Water Quality for Al-Diwaniyah River, Iraq Using GIS Technique

Khalid M. Hussein; Sataa A.F. Al-Bayati; Salih A.A. Al-Bakri A.A. Al-Bakri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 256-264
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.6

In this  study,  Al-Diwaniyah  River  within  Al-Diwaniyah  Governorate was monitored for a set of chemical, physical,and bacteriological parameters for the assessment of water quality during January to July 2018. Water quality maps for  this  river  were  plotted  torepresent  the  change  in  each  parameter  during  the study  period  using  GIS  program.  Three  sampling  stations  along  the  river  and eighteen parameters were selected: air temperature, water temperature, turbidity, pH  value,  electrical  conductivity  (EC),  biochemical  oxygen  demand  (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, chloride, Sulfate, total suspended solids (TSS), total  dissolved  solids  (TDS),  calcium,  magnesium,  total  hardness,  lead,  total coliform,and  Escherichia  coli  bacteria.  The  results  explained  that the  water temperature  varied between (15-31) °C. pH  values ranged between (7.4-8.2) and river  water  was  considered  as  slightly  alkaline  with  alkalinity  concentrations between (124-176) mg/L. Most waterof the  river was very  hard according to the values of hardness that varied between (384-531) mg/L. The turbidity values of the river  ranged  between  (1.5-35.2)  NTU.Electrical  conductivity  was  between  (998-1380)  μs/cm.  Total  dissolved  solids  and  total  suspended  solids  were  their  values varied  between  (620-932)mg/L  and  (2-28)  mg/L  respectively.  It  was  found  that among  measured  positive  ions,  calcium  concentrations  were  higher  than  the magnesium  concentrations,  ranging  between  (71-175)  mg/L  and  (21-67)  mg/L respectively.  On  the  other  hand,  when  studying  Anions, sulfate  concentrations were  higher  than  chloride  concentrations  with  values  ranging  from  (152-339) mg/L  and  (101-167)  mg/L  respectively.  River  water  contained  dissolved  oxygen concentrations  ranging  (6.3-10.1)  mg/L  while  concentrations  of  biochemical oxygen  demand  varied  between  (0.6-7.6)  mg/L.  Lead  ranged  in  valuesbetween (0.001-0.017)  mg/L.  The  study  found  that  bacteriological  parameters,  including total coliform and E. coli, ranged between (500-1600) MPN/100ml and (30-1600) MPN/100ml respectively. In general, the parameters of Turbidity, SO4, BOD5, TC and E. coli have exceeded Iraqi standards for drinking water IQS: 417 while the rest  of  the  parameters  were  within  these  limits.  It  revealed  that  station  2  which was  located  only  at  ashort  distance  from  the  site  of  the  wastewater  treatment plant  was  more  polluted  than  the  other  two  stations.  The  results  showed  that  the water  of  the  river  is neithersuitable  for  drinking,  nor  suitable  for  swimming according  to  the  high  bacterial  pollution  in  addition  to  the danger  and  threat  to aquatic life but can be used for irrigation purposes.

Zoning Areas Susceptible to Land Subsidence in Tigris and Euphrates Basins

Ali Darvishi Boloorani; Masoud Soleimani; Ramin Papi; Seyed Kazem Alavipanah; Ayad M. Fadhil Al-Quraishi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.7

Land Subsidence is considered as one of the riskiest hazards in nature and geology. It may be caused by human activities including but not limited to long-term depletion of water, petroleum, and gas from underground reservoirs. Monitoring and zoning of regions susceptible to land-subsidence within Tigris and Euphrates rivers basin can play a major role in predicting and preventing damages from subsidence and can aid in better planning for utilizing its water resources. Accordingly, this study proposed to employ 9 effective parameters on subsidence including: precipitation, total water underground changes, elevation, slope, population, land use, distance from petroleum and gas fields, distance from faults, and distance from rivers. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory method was applied for analyzing relationships between parameters. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Boolean methods were combined to produce zoning maps of Tigris and Euphrates basin subsidence. The results were indicative of the high potential of subsidence in zones contributing to 1.39% of the total area of the Tigris and Euphrates basin. Inter-parameter analysis by using of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory indicated that land cover, total water underground changes, and population were the most impressible factors in land subsidence zoning, respectively.

Study the Behavior of High Performance Concrete Circular Short Columns Confined by CFRP

Asmaa A. Ahmed; Shatha S. Hasan; Ali J. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 273-281
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.8

This paper presents the results of experimental study on reinforced concrete columns rehabilitation with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) under concentrated load. Twelve short circular reinforced concrete columns (150 mm diameter and 600 mm height) were tested. Three specimens were unstrengthening and tested until failure as control specimens. Nine specimens were rehabilitation by carbon fiber reinforced polymer after loading about 75% from ultimate axial load capacity of control specimens. The test parameters were the type of concrete are normal strength concrete (NSC), high performance concrete (HPC) and high performance concrete containing engine oil (HPCEO) in additional to effective the ratio CFRP confining (fall wrap (100%strengthening), 50mm strips wrap 50mm spacing (50%strengthening)and 40mm strips wrap-60mm spacing(40%strengthening)). Test results showed that Adding used engine oil to concrete have significantly effect on workability of concrete where work as plasticizer. HPCEO mix showed lower strength (compressive, splitting tensile and flexural) and ultimate axial load of column than those HPC mix but greater than NSC mix. Where the compressive strength of concrete was (27.3 MPa, 45.8 MPa and 69.7 MPa) for NSC, HPCEO and HPC respectively. The ultimate axial load capacity of unconfined reinforced concrete columns was (52 ton, 78 ton and 117 ton) for NSC, HPCEO and HPC respectively. Reducing efficiency of rehabilitation by CFRP with increasing in compressive strength of concrete. The ratios of increasing in ultimate axial load capacity of rehabilitation RC columns with 100% and 50% wrapping in comparison with 40%wrapping are 20% and 4% respectively for NSC, while these ratios become 15% and 5% respectively for HPCEO and for HPC , these ratios are 10%and 3% respectively.

Gait Analysis Before and After Total Knee Replacement

Sadiq J. Hamandi; Safa’a D. Al-Hussainy; Summer M. Sabeeh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 282-289
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.9

Total knee replacement is a surgical procedure for treatment of knee Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis and posttraumatic arthritis. The main goals of TKR are relieve the pain, restore function, mobility and restore normal limb alignment for the patients. The aim of the study to investigate the gait dynamic improvements following TKR surgery by compare the dynamic parameter pre-operative and post-operative and then comparing the results with the normal gait parameters. The gait analysis was performed on five patients before and after they underwent unilateral TKR surgery. After three months from the total knee replacement there was a remarked increase in the function and decrease in pain. The varus and valgus malalignment will be return to normal alignment after operation, which is one of the main goals of the TKR. Post-operative cadence is higher than pre-operative for four patients, post-operative speed is faster than pre-operative for four patients and post-operative stride length is larger than pre-operative for four patients. The patients continue to walk with significant gait abnormalities by examining the kinetics and the kinematics of the operated limb, the results show the knee function not fully restored three months after unilateraL TKR surgery.

A Cooperation of Fog Computing and Smart Gateways in a Secure and Efficient Architecture for IoT-Based Smart Homes

Amin H. Seno; Sahar A. Alshammari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 290-301
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.10

Nowadays Internet of Things (IoT) is growing to be a serious factor in numerous areas of our daily life style. Internet of Things brings different opportunities of intelligence to important aspects such as health, payments, energy management, industrial sectors, transportation and also many other specialties. It is important to notice that the interaction between these two part the embedded equipment and Cloud based web services is such a common or prevalent scenario of Internet of Things deployment. When it comes to the security point of view, jointly users (consumer) and smart devices need to reassure and establish a secure and confident communication channel and should have a perfect form of digital identity. In many situations, IoT devices needs an already or earlier established infrastructure for their usage and that cannot be managed by the device owner, such as the case in smart homes. Furthermore, the scenario presupposes a security stack that it is appropriate for heterogeneous devices which can be integrated in Internet of Things frameworks or in already presented operating systems. We proposed a Foggy Smart Home Architecture (FSHA). We identify end users by writing an authentication and authorization protocol, and we will reduce the time required for this security operation, so that the proposed method can prevent Non-manipulation, online/offline password guessing attack and user impersonation attack and man-in-the-middle attack. Our method improves performance of smart home and using fog layer can minimize traffic between cloud and gateways.