Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 37, Issue A9

Volume 37, Issue A9, September 2019, Page 354-383


Research Paper

Complex Surface Representation and Machining Time Estimation Upon Three Types of End Mill Cutter

Rasha J. Marzoog; Ahmed A. Alduroobi A. Alduroobi; Sawsan S. Al-Zubaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 354-358
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.1

The accuracy of data transition between CAD and CAM has been playing a great role in the product life cycle, and eventually, the product quality. As products complexity increased, the need to robust technique to data transition increased. On the other hand, Machining simulation facilitates deciding the process parameters. The aim of the present research is divided into two aims: first: building a free form surface and transforming its data accurately from CAD to CAM without any distortion. Second: study the milling process using different end cutters geometry and make a comparison between those in terms of machining time at a constant scallop height (s.h.). The study passed through three steps, first: A mathematical model and computer program had been built for non-uniform B-spline surface creation. The output points are stored in a format to be easily imported. Second: importing the data into manufacturing simulation program to emulate the milling process. Three types of milling tools with different end cutter had been used (flat, ball, and toroidal). Third, use a CIMCO edit package to estimate machining time for the three tools. A conclusion had been made that the surface data had been transformed accurately into the simulation process. Another conclusion was, with fixed (s.h.) the ball end mill takes more time than toroidal, which in turn takes more time than flat.

Smoothing Smartphone GPS Raw Measurements

Tariq N. Ataiwe; Abbas Z. Khalaf; Israa H. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 359-363
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.2

This  research aims  to  investigate  the  smoothing  of  the  pseudo-range raw  measurements  of  the  smartphone  using  a  Hatch  filter.  The  measurements  of  smartphones  suffer  from  high  noise  generated  from  low-cost  antennas  and  oscillators, which are designed to work in a certain way. These types of low-cost antennas  and  oscillators  are  entirely different  from  geodetic  instruments,  which  are  designed  for  high  accuracy  positioning.  The  GPS  measurement  data  were  collected   using   a   Huawei   P10   device,   41   minutes   and   24   seconds   GPS   observation  time  with  sampling  intervals  of  1  second  using  Geo++  Android  application.  The  GPS  measurements  are  processed  using  standalone  (epoch  by  epoch)  method,  by  MATLAB  software  developed  by  the  authors,  as  a  part  of  a software  package  for  processing  smartphone  GPS  measurements.  The  errors  in  raw  measurements  in  the  Easting,  Northing,  and  Up  (ENU)  components  when  using  standalone  (epoch  by  epoch)  method  are  ranging  from  -50m  to  30m,  and  the errors after applying the Hatch filter are reduced to have ranged from -10m to  5m,  the  raw  data  were  very  noisy  and  funded  it  has  many  cycles  slips  as  a  result of low-cost antennas and oscillators of smartphone’s. The cycle slips in the measurements  were  detected  and  found  that  it  was  the  result  of  jumping  the  errors to 27 m in northing and 43 m in up.

Point Cloud Pre-Processing and Surface Reconstruction Based on Chord Algorithm Technique

Ali M. Al-Badairy; Ahmed A. Al-Duroobi; Maan A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 364-368
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.3

3D laser scanner is one of the modern technologies, which used to obtain the geometric information about the 3D scanned object surface. But, there are some problems that are associated with this technique such as the huge number of obtained points which require high memory to save and the required data processing processes. This paper proposed a data simplification algorithm for point cloud of a scanned object using 3D laser scanner (Matter
and Form) in a manner to extract the necessary geometric features, which are
represented by points for a 3D object. This algorithm based on the
instantaneous calculation of chord height of each set of adjacent points in the
point cloud. A MATLAB environment was used to build a proposed
simplification algorithm program. Then this program was applied using a
proposed case study. The result which was obtained from the application of the
proposed algorithm and surface fitting process for the proposed case study
proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data simplification. The
percent of data which was ignored as noisy data point was (24%) of the total
number of data point in applying the algorithm for two attempts.
3D laser scanner is one of the modern
technologies, which
used to
obtain the geometric information about the 3D scanned object surface.
But,
there are some
problems
that
are
associated with this technique such as the
huge number of obtained points
which
require high memory to save
and
the
required data processing processes.
Th
is paper proposed a data simplification
algorithm for point cloud of a
scanned obje
ct using 3D laser scanner (Matter
and Form) in a
manner to extract the necessary geometric features, which
are
represented by points for a 3D object. This algorithm based on
the
instantaneous calculation of chord height of each set of adjacent points in th
e
point cloud. A MATLAB environment was
used to build a proposed
simplification algorithm program
. Then
this program
was
appli
ed using a
proposed case study.
The result which was obtained from
the
application
of
the
proposed algorithm and surface fitting process for the proposed case study
proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data simplification.
The
percent of data which was ignored as noisy data point was (24%)
of the
total
number of data point in applying the algorithm for two attempts.

Recycling of Waste Paraffin Wax by the Addition of SiO2 Nano-Powders to Improve Thermal Conductivity

Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 369-373
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.4

Paraffin wax is an important material used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The thermal conductivity of the material is an important parameter that decides the degree of exploitation of the paraffin wax in TES systems. The thermal conductivity is improved by the addition of silicon oxide nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) to the paraffin wax. The average size of the SiO2 particles is equal to 38 nm. The addition of SiO2 nano-particles at very small ratios was found to enhance the thermal conductivity of the paraffin wax considerably. SiO2 nanoparticles, add to paraffin wax, have a significant effect in enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin
Paraffin wax is an important material used in thermal energy storage
(TES) systems. The thermal conductivity of the material is an important
parameter
that
decides the degree of exploitation of the paraffin wax in TES
systems. The thermal conductivity is improved by the addition of silicon oxide
nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 4
%,
and 6%) to the paraffin wax. The average size of the
SiO
2
particles is equal to 38 nm. The a
ddition
of SiO
2
nano
-particles at very
small ratios was found to enhance the thermal conductivi
ty of the paraffin wax
considerably. SiO
2
nanoparticles, add to paraffin wax, have
a significant effect
in enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin

A Compact Single-Feed Patch Antenna with Frequency and Polarization Diversity

Fayyadh H. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 374-383
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.5

A new compact single feed square ring patch antenna using meandered 4λ transformer is designed, for frequency and polarization diversity. The proposed antenna is constructed from a square ring patch antenna, and two orthogonal meandered cascaded 4λ transformer (OMCT), incorporated with six switches for frequency and polarization reconfiguration purposes. The OMCT with switches is necessary to get good impedance bandwidth (BW) and axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) for circular polarization state. In addition, it utilized to excite the antenna at two orthogonal locations, with equal magnitude and quadratic in phase, for achieving circular polarization mode at resonant frequencies 2.44GHz, 4.7GHz, and 5.6GHz. Moreover, it can excite the antenna as non-orthogonal modes for various other frequency bands, such as 2.89 GHz, 3.49 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5.2GHz, 5.49GHz, 6.16GHz and 3.1GHz as linear polarization (LP) state. The proposed antenna has a compact low profile planar structure with area equal to 23mm2. Simulation and measured results show that the proposed antenna demonstrates a reasonable impedance bandwidth, and axial ratio in the circularly polarized state. Simulation results have been obtained from commercial CST-2014 Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna is fabricated for simulation result verification, and the implemented antenna is tested using R&S ZVL13 Vector Network Analyzer. The experimental confirms the simulation results.