Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 37, Issue 10A

Volume 37, Issue 10A, October 2019, Page 384-452


Research Paper

Investigation the Morphological Characteristics of the Particulate Matter Emissions from the Oxygenated Fuels Combustion in Diesel Engines

Mohammed A. Fayad; Bashar R. AL-Ogaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 384-390
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.1

Understanding the size and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM) is essential to improve analysis of the process of PM formation in diesel engines. These will help to reduce undesirable environmental impact and health effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the changes in size characteristics of PM/soot and soot reactivity. Furthermore, improve the oxidation of soot particles in diesel engines is necessary under the range of different fuel combustions. Oxygenated fuels (e.g., ethanol blend, E10 and butanol blend, B16) were used in this experimental study to show how insignificant changes in morphological characteristics and activity of PM .
The oxidation and activation energy of PM was achieved at the lower temperature from the combustion of oxygenated fuels compared with diesel fuel combustion. Besides, it was found that both the size of soot particulate and the number of primary particles are reduced with increasing the oxygen content in oxygenated fuels than the diesel fuel. The shape of primary soot particle for PM is a bit more spherical in the case of diesel fuel than to the oxygenated fuels.
Keywords- Particulate matter, PM oxidation, Oxygenated fuel, Combustion, Soot particles, Diesel engine, TGA.
Understanding the size and morphological properties of particulate
matter (PM) is essential to improve analysis
of
the process of PM formation in
diesel engines. These will help to reduce undesirable environmental impact and
health effects. A scanning mobi
lity particle sizer (SMPS) and thermal
gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the changes in size
characteristics of PM/soot and soot reactivity. Furthermore, improve
the
oxidation of soot particles in diesel engines is necessary under
the
range of
different fuel combustions. Oxygenated fuels (e.g.
,
ethanol blend, E10 and
butanol blend, B16) were used in this experimental study to show how
insignificant changes in morphological characteristics and activity of PM
.
The oxidation and activation energy of PM was achieved at
the
lower
temperature from the combustion of oxygenated fuels compared with diesel fuel
combustion.
Besides
, it was found that both
the
size of soot particulate
and
the
number of primary
particles
are
reduced with increasing the oxygen content in
oxygenated fuels than the diesel fuel. The shape of
primary
soot particle for PM
is a bit more spherical in
the
case of diesel fu
el than to the oxygenated fuels
.

An Overview on Most Effective DRAs in Crude Oil Pipelines

Raheeq I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Odah; Dhoha A. Shafeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 391-397
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.2

The flow of crude oil in pipelines suffers from a problem of fluid flow pressure drop and high-energy consumption for pumping especially in low temperatures environment. Flow can be enhanced using viscosity either reduction or drag reduction techniques. Drag reduction is considered as the most effective and most applicable method. The technique contributes in reducing the frictional energy losses during the flow by addition of little doses of materials knowing as drag-reducing agents. The present work focuses on more recent and most applicable drag-reducing agents used in crude oil flow enhancement via pipelines.

The Air Bubbles Effect for Underwater Optical Wireless Communication Using 650 nm Wavelength

Salah A. Adnan; Mazin A.A. Ali; Fatima S. Hakwar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 398-403
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.3

In this research, texts were sent by pulse width modulation
(PWM) in the channel of clean water using
Arduino hardware and software for an underwater wireless optical
communication system (UWOC). The air bubbles device utilized the
disturbance at different distances from the transmitter source within the
channel of clean water. The total length of the channel is (1) m. In this
study, the source of transmitter wavelengths 650 nm was used with the
power of 80mw. The results showed that the received power was 32 mW
in the clean water, while when air bubbles pump within the channel of
clean water at 0.2m, 0.5m and 0.8m away from the transmitter source,
the received power was 28 mW, 27.5 mW, and 27 mW respectively. This
paper shows that max. Signal to Noise Ratio (S/N) and min. attenuation
(α) in the clean water were (24.637dB) and (3.979dB/m) respectively.
The practical results showed that the Symbol Error Rate (SER) in the
case of the air bubbles pump was maximum (0.03) when the value of
(S/N) was minimum (23.899).

Effect of laser Peening on the Microhardness and Roughness of Al-7277 alloy

Mays O. Hashim; Abdul Hadi K. Judran; Razi J. Al Azawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 404-407
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.4

The purpose of the study conducted was an analysis of the influence of pulse density per area unit of LSP on (7277AL Alloy) regarding the surface characterization, roughness achieved and microhardness. The samples, which were used in this investigation, are 7277Al Alloy. Specify the laser parameter used in this study effect on sample surface properties were studied. Such as laser energy, and laser pulses number the results reveal that the microhardness enhancement by 80%, while the surface roughness increased by 69% when laser energy of 360mj and the number of laser pulses of 100 pulse were applied. X-ray fluorescence analyses and optical microscope were carried out for all samples.

Experimental Investigation of Sub-Cooled Flow Boiling in Metallic Microchannel

Suha A. mohammed; Ekhlas Mohammed Fayyadh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 408-415
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.5

Experiments in microchannel heat sink were carried that examine the deionized water two-phase boiling heat transfer. The heat sink consisted of a single microchannel having 300μm wide nominal dimensions and 300μm height (hydraulic diameter of 300μm). The heat sink formed of oxygen-free copper with 72mm length and 12mm width. Experimental operation conditions spanned the heat flux (78-800) kW/m2, mass flux (1700 and 2100) kg/m2.s at 31K subcooled inlet temperature. The boiling heat transfer coefficient is measured, and compared with existing correlations. The results show that higher mass flux leads to a higher boiling heat transfer coefficient and the dominants mechanism is convective boiling. In addition, it was found that an existing correlation provides a satisfactory prediction of the heat transfer coefficient.

Design and Control of a Full-Scale Quarter Car Test Rig for Semi-Active Suspension System

Bahaa-Aldin R. Abdullah; Mohsin N. Hamzah; Ammar S. Merza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 416-421
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.6

Passive hydraulic dampers are commonly used in the automotive suspension system. Nevertheless, they are suffering from a significant drawback owing to the changing of its characteristics at high-frequency; as a result, decreasing the ride quality due to the increase of the transmitted force, especially at high frequency excitations. The present work developed a semi-active suspension system to solve this problem with its effect. A Sky-hook control strategy is used to suppress the positional oscillation of the sprung mass in the presence of road irregularities via the use of the electrohydraulic (EH) damper, as an objective. In order to apply the control strategy used herein, a full-scale quarter-car test platform has been designed and constructed to offer increased testing flexibility at a reasonable cost not found commercially. MATLAB Simulink is applied for modeling the semi-active suspension system. The control strategy using a Sky-hook control was used to enhance the comfort due to the simplicity of this method that can easily be implemented in a real-time embedded application. The control strategy is evaluated for its performance under the road bump excitation. The experimental results were compared with the simulated ones for both passive and semi-active suspension systems, the comparison includes time response analysis of body vertical displacement, and vertical displacement of quarter car structure.

Survey of User to User Recommendation System in Online Social Networks

Sammer A. Qader; Ayad R. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 422-428
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.7

The widespread use of online social networks (OSN) and their applications by users lead to the lack of knowledge identification of their needs across the vast amount of data, which made the need to create systems that help people to solve the problems and make decisions with more accuracy, an example of these systems is the Recommendation system (RS), which helps users to make decision and save time in search on a commercial or personal level, one of the most critical types of recommendation systems is the friends recommendation system (FRS) . In this survey, several studies have been suggested to solve the problem of FRS and its mechanism, techniques, and algorithms used to create them Also, the RS types and techniques, a variety of dataset that deals with a specific system, are explained. Moreover, the challenges they face to determine the needs of people in terms of the choice of items or at the level of social networks are included.

Hydraulic Analysis of Irrigation Network for the Proposed Taq-Taq Dam Using EPANET Software

Ibtisam R. Karim; Sarmad A. Sahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 429-434
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.8

Analysis of pipe network is the fluid flow through hydraulics network containing inters connected branches, whose aim is to determine the pressure drops and flow rates in the individual parts of the network. In the study using specialized software such as EPANET for automatically solving problems of network. The main objective of this study is to analysis the irrigation network of the proposed Taq-Taq dam using hydraulic simulation software, in order to study the distribution of pressure, velocity and head on the pipe network for the purpose of ensuring the operation of the network efficiently and improve quantity and quality of water that distributed through the pipelines system. Finally, the study showed velocity distribution, pressure distribution and head distribution along the pipeline in the irrigation project. All the results that the simulated model seems to be reasonably close to an actual same network.

Structural and Morphological Investigation of Cr2O3/WO3Oxides Films Composite Using Modified Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Zena A. Salman; Farhad M. Othman; Alaa A. Abdul-hamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 435-441
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.9

Cr2O3/WO3 oxides film composite was successfully synthesized via advanced controlled chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique using two nozzles. Two solutions of tungstic acid and chromium chloride was sprayed separately at various ratios of (W: Cr) at the same time on a silicon substrate at 500 °C, the film then heat-treated at 400 °C for the 60s. The crystal structure, microstructure and morphology properties of prepared films were studied. Based on characterization techniques, crystallized Cr2O3/WO3 mixed oxides films were investigated by X-ray diffraction after the annealing process, with film thickness of about 500 nm. The SEM and AFM revealed that rough and porous microstructures of Cr2O3/WO3 were formed. The obtained microstructure has been known as one of the most effective microstructures due to having high surface area particularly in gas detection applications

Modelling the Ecosystem Behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in South of Iraq Under Different Water Discharges Scenarios

Fuaad H. Al-Yaseen; Mustafa M. Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 442-452
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.10

The marshlands are of fundamental importance to Iraq, a unique ecosystem providing local inhabitants with an essential source of habitat and livelihoods. This paper aims to study the ecosystem behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in the south of Iraq under different scenarios using the Ecosystem Functions Model Program (HEC-EFM) and Hydrologic Engineering Center Data Storage System Visual Utility Engine (HEC-DSSVue). To this end, data was converted from tri-monthly and semi-monthly to daily data using the HEC-DSSVue program. The daily data natural(flow, stage) was used for five years between 2013 and 2018. The prediction process was evaluated using three criteria: correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), and the Nash–Sutcliffe effectivity coefficient (NSE). Results of R, RMSE and NSE for the daily inflow discharge (stage) of natural were 0.98 (0.93), 1.55 (0.19) and 0.95 (0.73). Five scenarios of a percentage decrease in gage(flow, stage) with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% were investigated. Results showed that the decrease in discharge from 2% to 8% did not significantly affect environmental relations and could be used by the competent authorities. However, when the discharge was reduced to 10%, the environmental relations were greatly affected and threatened the life of the organisms. In addition to that, results for wetland health reverse lookup at the fifth scenario show that Abu–Ziriq Marsh need (70.2%) as a percent of the time, when flows equal or exceed four m3/sec. This discharge was chosen because it can be supplied on most days of the year, which is the time needed to be revived when flows equal or exceed 4 (m3/sec).