Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

11A,

11A


Research Paper

Investigation the Creep-Fatigue Behavior and A.C. Electrical Conductivity of AA 6061 Under Ultrasonic Peening

Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Ahmed H. Reja; Mahmood F. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 453-459
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.1

Ultrasonic peening is an innovative surface improvement process used to increase the resistance of aircraft metals and enhance high cycle fatigue life. The process creates residual compressive stresses deep into part surfaces. These compressive surface stresses inhibit the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Aluminum alloys are relatively new materials used in aerospace, marine, automobile, and bridges due to low weight, which has significant advantages compared to the other materials. A major concern in the design of Aluminum alloys subjected to variable loads is fatigue strength and life. In this paper mechanical properties, fatigue strength, fatigue life and A.C.. electrical conductivity were studied for AA6061-T6 to assess the effects of ultrasonic peening (UP) on mechanical properties, fatigue at room temperature (RT), creep-fatigue (CF) at 250 ͦC and A.C.. electrical conductivity. Test results showed that after UP, the mechanical properties; ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield stress (Ys)
were noticeably improved. The improvements in UTS and Ys were enhanced by
5.7% and 1.5% respectively while the ductility was reduced from 16.5% to 15.7%.
Fatigue strength was enhanced by 8.37% compared to strength at RT. The results
of UT before creep-fatigue CF showed increasing in fatigue strength 147 MPa at
CF 250 ̊C and improved to153 MPa after applying UP, indicating 4%
improvement in strength. The fatigue life was improved after UP for both RT and
CF. It was found that the A.C. electrical conductivity increase as the frequency
increase for all the cases above.
Ultrasonic peening is an innovative surface improvement process used
to increase the resistance of aircraft metals and enhance high cycle fatigue life.
The process creates residual compressive stresses deep into part surfaces. These
compressive surface st
resses inhibit the initiation and propagation of fatigue
cracks. Aluminum alloys are relatively new materials used in aerospace, marine,
automobile
, and bridges due to low weight, which
has
significant
advantages
compared to the other materials. A major concern in the design of Aluminum
alloys subjected to variable loads is fatigue strength and life. In this paper
mechanical properties, fatigue strength, fatigue life and A.C.
. electrical
conductivity wer
e studied for AA6061-
T6 to assess the effects of ultrasonic peening
(UP) on mechanical properties, fatigue at room temperature (RT), creep-
fatigue
(CF) at 250
ͦ
C and A.C.
. electrical conductivity. Test results showed that after UP
,
the mechanical propertie
s; ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield stress
(Ys)
were noticeably improved. The improvements in UTS and Ys
were
enhanced by
5.7% and 1.5% respectively while the ductility was reduced from 16.5% to 15.7%.
Fatigue strength was enhanced by 8.37% compar
ed to strength at RT. The results
of UT before
creep
-fatigue CF showed increasing in fatigue strength 147 MPa at
CF 250
̊
C and improved to153 MPa after applying UP
, indicating 4%
improvement in strength.
The f
atigue life was improved after UP for both RT and
CF. It was found that the A.C. electrical conductivity increase as the frequency
increase for all the cases above

Toxic Effect of Inhalation Polyurethane in Lungs, Liver, and Kidneys Fume in White Male Mice

Sura M. Ahmed; Amel A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 460-463
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.2

In this study, the toxic effect of exposure to inhalation of polyurethane resin fumes by White Male Mice was evaluated over 36 days. The study included the use of the inhalation method in an exposition room filled with the fume chemical to a period of 10, 20 and 40 minutes per day, and were then transferred to the fumigant section of the animal house. The organs of the mice was dissected, and the change of the weight determined. The lungs, liver, kidneys tissues of the exposed mice showed typical structural structures when compared with the control group. The liver cells of the mice group exposed to polyurethane were revealed to expose to some hydrolysis and led to an increase in their size. In terms of lung, tissue was characterized by the presence of interstitial infiltration and bloody congestion. It was observed that water degeneration of the lining cells of the parts of the urinary tracts of the kidney with the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue. These results suggest that exposure of white mice to polyurethane coating fumes may cause observed harmful effects and cause serious health problems to their liver and lung.

Deep CNN Based Skin Lesion Image Denoising and Segmentation using Active Contour Method

Hadeel N. Abdullah; Hala K. Abduljaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 464-469
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.3

Automatic skin lesion segmentation on skin images is an essential component in diagnosing skin cancer. Image de-noising in skin cancer lesion is a description of processing image which refers to image restoration techniques to develop an image in predefined touch. Then de-noising is the crucial step of image processing to restore the right quality image after that which can use in many processes like segmentation, detection. This work proposes a new technique for skin lesion tumor denoising and segmentation. Initially, using Deep Convolution Neural Network (CNN) to eliminate noise and undesired structures for the images. Then, a new mechanism is proposed to segment the skin lesion into skin images based on active_contour straight with morphological processes. Different noise removal and segmentation techniques on skin lesion images are applying and comparing. The proposed algorithm shows improvement in the results of both noise reduction and segmentation

Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan- Polyvinyl alcohol Blend Modified by Genipin and Nanohydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Engineering

Ishraq A. Kadhim; Zuhair J. Abdul Ameer; Assel B. Alzubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 470-474
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.4

Use nanohydroxyapatite into the polymeric matrix as bioactive material for bone tissue engineering has enormous therapeutic potential because beneficial properties biocompatibility, biodegradability, and consider a major inorganic constituent of the bone matrix. The blended films of Chitosan and Polyvinyl alcohol with Genipin as cross-link agent were studied with and without addition Nanohydroxyapatite. Samples were prepared by solvent casting. The resulting films blended composite were characterized by Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, degradation behavior, swelling degree and tensile strength. Degree of swelling, and weight loss of the films blended composite was decreased with an increase of genipin and nanohydroxyapatie concentrations while tensile strength was increased with an increase of genipin and nanohydroxyapaite concentrations. The results showed that the chitosan composite could be used as effective biomaterials for bone regeneration engineering with different degradation rates.

An Experimental Investigation on Thermal Efficiency of Flat Plate Tube Solar Collector using Nanofluid with Solar Tracking Mechanism

Saad T. Hamidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 475-487
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.5

In the present work, flat-plate solar collector (FPSC) in terms of various parameters as well as in respect of lower (Area of FPSC, volume fraction concentration of nanofluids, and mass flow rate) has been studied in this work. The FPSC has been fabricated with 0.192 m2, Dioxide silicon SiO2 (40nm) with the volume fraction of SiO2+Distilled water (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%) and varying of flow rate (10, 15, 20L/h). These technological devices operate under forced circulation mode of fluid under varying climate conditions. The tracking mechanism has been used in the experiment of FPSC for tracking the sun position during the daytime. As per the ASHRAE standard. The results showed that at volume fraction 0.10 % and flow rate of 20 L/h, the highest increase in the absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) was 7.3 %, and the removed energy parameter FRUL was 11.9 % compared with distilled water. The changes in absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) they vary from 4.4% to 7.3% while in removed energy parameter FRUL, the vary from 1.3% to 11.9% as compared with the distilled water case. The maximum efficiency was about 70 % as the decreased temperature parameter [(Ti–Ta)/GT] is equal to zero at a volume fraction of 0.10 % and flow rate of 20 L/h

Ethical Responsibility in the Practice of Architecture

Abdullah S.S. Almaamouri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 488-495
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.6

The research deals with the concept of ethical responsibility as one of the most influential concepts in the process of practicing architecture. It is defined as “systems of ethical principles and engineering rules governing the architect in making decisions of design practice, making them sound, preventing them from making mistakes during the stages of design, and the maintenance “by the commitment to them, result in creative architectural texts benefit the individual and society,” and thus determine the research problem in (Lack of cognitive perception of the role of moral responsibility in the practice of architecture). Therefore, the research aims at clarifying the standards, elements and principles of the practice of architecture according to the moral responsibility of the architecture, and accordingly the research assumes that the indicators of moral responsibility have a positive impact in the formulation of creative architectural productions. For the purpose of addressing the issue of research and achieve the objectives of the research and verification of the hypothesis was first build a framework of knowledge, and a comprehensive theoretical framework of moral responsibility deduced from the architectural propositions and proposals to materialize as Chock final in three main indicators: “Standards of the practice of architecture morally, and the ingredients of the practice of architecture morally, and the foundations of the practice of architecture morally”.