Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 39, Issue 2

Volume 39, Issue 2, March 2021, Page 167-337

Behavior of Single Micropile Under Different Lateral Load Rates

Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Husam H. Baqir; Saif H. Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 167-179
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168101

This paper displays an empirical work of a micropile inserted in the dry river sand with different length to diameter (L/D) ratios (13, 15, 27, 42, and 50). The experimental work is executed on the models of micropile to imitate the side force motion, acting on the micropile head to explain the micropile conduct due to the different side force rates. Forty-five models are tested (eighteen models for short pile, eighteen model for long pile and nine models for intermediate) embedded in different relative densities of sandy soil. The results illustrate that for the same relative density, the lateral load is decreased when the moving rate increasing from (3.37 to 3.97 then 4.59 mm/min), that means frequency (0.55 to 0.65 then 0.75 Hz), respectively.
At the same moving rate of horizontal loading, the value of lateral load increased with the increase of horizontal displacement until reach to the 12mm at the end of the test. The duration of the test decreased with the increase of moving rate and the maximum duration of the test recorded for micropile model has (L/D) of 50 with 75% relative density when the moving rate of lateral load is 3.37 mm/min. Also, it is found that the duration of the test increases when the relative density increased at the same moving rate.

Effect of Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness of Multilayer Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating System

Mais A. Habeeb; Mohammed J. Kadhim; Fadhil A. Hashim; Maryam A. bash

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 180-188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168102

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used in advanced engines working at higher temperatures. Higher efficiency and performance of gas turbine engines will require careful selection of TBCs. In this study, Ni22Cr10Al1.0Y (Amdry 9625) bond coat and two types of top coat including ceria stabilized zirconia (CSZ) ZrO2-24CeO2-2.5Y2O3) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ZrO2-8Y2O3 were deposited on IN 625 by air
plasma spraying (APS). The thickness of the duplex ceramic coat based on zirconia was in the range between 350 to 400 μm. The effect of high power Yb:YAG solid state laser at different laser parameters on feature, microstructure and roughness of plasma sprayed and laser sealed coating of multilayer ceria stabilized zirconia/ yttria stabilized zirconia was investigated. Surface roughness has been reduced significantly after laser sealing. The effect of laser process parameters carried out using Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array design. Minimum roughness can be obtained at moderate power density and longer interaction time with sufficient specific energy to produce complete melting of coating. Characterization and analysis of results was achieved by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , (EDS) and image J analysis. It was found from the results, there were significant improvements in the performance of plasma sprayed coatings after laser sealing due to the reduction of surface coating defects.

Removal of high concentration phenol from aqueous solutions by electrochemical technique

Shaimaa T. Alnasrawy; Ghayda Y. Alkindi; Talib M. Albayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 189-195
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168103

In this study, the ability of the electrochemical process to remove aqueous high concentration phenol using an electrochemical cell with aluminum anode and cathode was examined. The removal rate of phenol was monitored using different parameters phenol concentration, pH, electrolysis time, current density, and electrode distance. Obtained results indicated that the low removal rates of phenol were observed at both low and high pH. However, the removal rate of phenol increased with an increase in the current density, each electrochemical process conditions need a certain electrodes distance. removal rate of phenol decreased with the increase in the initial phenol concentration. The maximum removal rate of phenol obtained from this study was 82%.

The Effect of Peanut and Walnut Shells powders on Tensile and Microstructure of the PMMA for prosthetic Denture

Zainab M. Abdul Monem; Jawad K. Oleiwi; Qahtan A. Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 196-205
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168104

In the current research, the heat-cured matrix material powder of PMMA was reinforced with Peanut and Walnut Shells (natural powders) which are chemically treated with 5% (w/v) (NaOH) to improve the matrix bonding (PMMA) before being used as a reinforcing powder and adding to exactly similar averages particle sizes ≤ (53μm), with different weight fractions of (4, 8, and 12 wt.%). The results indicated that the Elastic modulus values reached their maximum value at (8 wt.%.) when reinforced with Peanut Shells powders (1.053Gpa), while, the values of tensile strength, elongation percentage at the break, decrease as the weight fraction of Peanut and Walnut Shells powders increase and the lowest values are obtained by reinforcing with Peanut Shells powders to reach their minimum values at (12 wt.%) where the lowest values of them are (29 MPa, 2.758%) respectively. The fracture surface morphology of pure PMMA seemed to be homogenous morphology in (SEM) test, whereas the fracture surface morphology of PMMA composite reinforced by (Peanut and Walnut Shells) powders and shows a smoothness fracture surface morphology this refers to brittle to semi ductile or ductile transformation.

Thermally Activated Bentonite As a Supplementary Cementitious Material – A Review

Amer A. Al-Hammood; Qais J. Frayyeh; Waleed A. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 206-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168105

Bentonite is a mixture of clay and non-clay minerals. Montmorillonite clay mineral is a dominant mineral in bentonite. Silica and alumina bond in the crystal structure of montmorillonite. Therefore, they cannot contribute to the pozzolanic reaction. Heat treatment of bentonite leads to the destruction of the crystal structure of montmorillonite and converting silica and alumina to reactive phases. Thermally activated bentonite (TAB) is a relatively low reactive pozzolan when used as partial replacement of Portland cement modifies both fresh and hardened properties of cement paste, mortar, and concrete. The most desired effects of TAB are: improve segregation resistance, reduce the rate of strength gain, and enhance concrete durability against sulfates, chlorides, and acids, in addition to economic and ecological beneficiations. This paper provides information related to heat treatment of bentonite clays and montmorillonite minerals, and their effects on the paste, mortar, and concrete when used as a partial replacement of Portland cement.

Optimizing Nano Metalworking Emulsions Preparation Using Response Surface Method

Nuhad B. Dawood; Adnan A. AbdulRazak; Adel S. Hamadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 214-232
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168106

In this work paraffin oil, water and a mixture of surfactants Span20 & Tween20 are utilized for the preparation of the Metalworking Fluids (MWF). A quadratic model was developed by applying the response surface method (RSM) to relate the droplets size and emulsion stability as a response to five independent variables namely the speed and time of mixing, the concentration of the surfactant, Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value and pH value. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted; the results confirm the high significance of the regression model. The predicted values were found to be satisfactory with that experimental value. Mixing speed exerted the highest effect on the droplet size and the stability of the emulsion. The optimum conditions were found to be (the concentration = 4.75 wt.%, time of mixing = 18.12 min, speed of mixing 14998.93 rpm, pH = 10.01 and HLB = 10.87) to attained Nanoemulsion with 2 nm in size and stability of 24 days. Tool wear and surface roughness were studied at a different speed, the results have shown that the wear ratio of the bits for all selected speeds is as follow: using commercial fluid > MWFs. The metallurgical microscope images have shown that, in case using MWFs the surface of cracks between the metals and the tool is more smooth compare with other fluids.

Congestion Avoidance and Control in Internet Router Based on Fuzzy AQM

Hanan M. Kadhim; Ahmed A. Oglah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 233-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168107

The internet has made the world a little community, linking millions of people, organizations, and equipment for different purposes. The great impact of these networks in our lives makes their efficiency a vital matter to take care of, and this needs handling some problems including congestion. In this paper, the fuzzy-PID controller is used to control the nonlinear TCP / AQM model. This controller adjusts congestion of the computer network and commits controlled pressurized signaling features. Many experiments were carried out using different network parameter values, various queue sizes, and additional disturbances to verify the robustness and efficiency of the proposed controller. From all experiments carried out in the NS-2 simulator version (2.35), the results show the superiority of the FPID controller under different network traffic conditions.

Integral Sliding Mode Control Based on Barrier Function for Servo Actuator with Friction

Anmar F. Abd; Shibly A. Al-Samarraie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 248-259
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168108

This paper proposes the use of the integral sliding mode control (ISMC) based on the barrier function to control the servo actuator system with friction. Based on the barrier function, the main features of the ISMC design were preserved, additionally, the proposed control design is done without the need to know the bound on the system model uncertainty, accordingly, the overestimation of the control gain doesn’t take place and the chattering is eliminated. Moreover, the steady-state error can be adjusted via selecting the barrier function parameter only.
The simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed ISMC based on the barrier function where the system angle successfully follows the desired angular position with a small pre-adjusted steady-state error. Additionally, the obtained results clarify superior features compared with a traditional ISMC designed to the same actuator.

Removal of Tetracycline Antibiotic from Wastewater by Fenton Oxidation Process

Mahdi H. Mahdi; Thamer J. Mohammed; Jenan A. Al-Najar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 260-267
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168109

This study aimed to remove the antibiotic tetracycline from a sample of synthetic wastewater using an advanced oxidation process by Fenton's reagent treatment. Central Composite Design (CCD) software was used to reduce the number of tests required to remove tetracycline. The independent variables identified in batch oxidation experiments are the concentrations of tetracycline (40–250 mg / L), hydrogen peroxide (20–600 mg / L), and Fe(II) (0–60 mg / L). The rate of tetracycline degradation was significantly influenced by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and tetracycline. The reaction time required for tetracycline removal was determined to be 15 minutes. The optimal ratio of independent variants leading to complete degradation 100% of tetracycline was hydrogen peroxide / Fe2 + / tetracycline 310/30/145 mg / l.

H∞ loop Shaping Robust Postprandial Glucose Control for Type 1 Diabetes

Safa F. Fadhel; Safanah M. Raafat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 268-279
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168110

The Bergman model is one of the most commonly used models applied to the representation of the artificial pancreas (AP). It is important to study the effects of the insulin infusion on blood glucose concentration. This work includes a case study for the design of a robust controller for an AP. Robustness is a structured control that improves a system's ability to keep its stability and performance under various conditions. The proposed H∞ loop shaping HLS method will fulfill the design requirements of robust control and performance. The results of the simulation prove the superiority of the intended approach in terms of simple structure, robust performance, and stability with the least control effort

Examining Rebalancing Considers of the Mixed-Model Assembly Line Type-II for the Straight and U-shaped Layout Using the Taguchi Method

Samah. A. Aufy; AllaEldin. H. Kassam; Ghanim A. Ismeal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 280-294
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168111

Facing the increasingly competitive market environment, assembly lines are gained attention because of the assembly process expenditure consumes more than 20 % of the manufacturing cost, and also improve its products to meet demand. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop worker-task assigned to workstation heuristic (W-TAWH) approach for solving mixed-model assembly line balancing problem (M-MALBP), in which the assembly tasks have to be assigned to workstations, and each workstation needs to select only one of the available operators to perform the assigned tasks corresponding to the straight and U-shaped assembly lines with the objective minimum cycle time. The performance of the developed approach was evaluated and validated through applying the practical case in the Dayla State Company for Electrical Industries (DSCEI) particularly in the electric transformer factory (ETF). Taguchi method was used to evaluate the contribution of each one of the considerations in the assembly line are solution approach, layout, sequence vector (SV), and workstation numbers. All results proved the stated considerations have impact significant in any trying to re-balance the assembly line.

Pattern Recognition of Composite Motions based on EMG Signal via Machine Learning

Noof T. Mahmooda; Mahmuod H. Al-Muifraje; Sameer K. Salih; Thamir R. Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 295-305
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168112

In the past few years, physical therapy plays a crucial role during rehabilitation. Numerous efforts are made to demonstrate the effectiveness of medical/ clinical and human-machine interface (HMI) applications. One of the most common control methods is using electromyography (EMG) signals generated by muscle contractions to implement the prosthetic human body parts. This paper presents an EMG signal classification system based on the EMG signal. The data is collected from biceps and triceps muscles for six different motions, i.e., bowing, clapping, handshaking, hugging, jumping, and running using a Myo armband with eight electromyography sensors. The Root Mean Square, Difference Absolute Standard Deviation Value, and Principle Component Analysis are used to extract the raw signal data and enhance classification accuracy. The machine learning method is applied, i.e., Support Vector Machine and K-Nearest Neighbors are used for classification; the results show that the K-Nearest Neighbors method achieves a higher accuracy percentage than the SVM. Making high training accuracy for different physical actions helps implement human prosthetic parts to help the people who suffer from an amputee.

Analytical Study of Affecting Gasoline Quality Properties on Environment and Its Conformity with Specifications

Dhuha K. Ismayyir; Lamyaa M. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 306-315
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168113

Gasoline is an important fuel in human life, but it is also responsible for deteriorating Ambient Air Quality (AAQ) through fugitive and exhaust emissions. In this study, chemical properties (Sulfur and Lead content) of gasoline production at Al-Daura refinery were verify based on a statistical quality control tool. Gasoline samples were examined in January/2011 and compared with samples examined in January/2019. In this study, it was concluded that the average production process and process variability for Sulfur content and added Lead value are stable. In January/2011 Sulfur content conforms to Iraqi and European standard specifications, but Lead value doesn’t conform to Iraqi standards, where internationally the use of lead to enhance engine performance has been banned since the 1970s of a century ago because it’s large dangerous on the environment. In January/2019 Sulfur content conforms to Iraqi standards but doesn’t conform to European standards specifications. The addition of lead to gasoline is stopped in 2016; imported gasoline was used by blend it with produced gasoline at al Daura refinery to raise its quality. Gasoline quality properties must be improved and tighten up according to international standards to save our environment.

Detection of confusion behavior using a facial expression based on different classification algorithms

Fatima I. Yasser; Bassam H. Abd; Saad M. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 316-325
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168114

Confusion detection systems (CDSs) that need Noninvasive, mobile, and cost-effective methods use facial expressions as a technique to detect confusion. In previous works, the technology that the system used represents a major gap between this proposed CDS and other systems. This CDS depends on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) that is used to extract facial features. The FACS shows the motion of the facial muscles represented by Action Units (AUs); the movement is represented with one facial muscle or more. Seven AUs are used as possible markers for detecting confusion that has been implemented in the form of a single vector of facial action; the AUs that have been used in this work are AUs 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, and 23. The database used to calculate the performance of the proposed CDS is gathered from 120 participants (91males, 29 females), between the ages of 18-45. Four types of classification algorithms are used as individuals; these classifiers are (VG-RAM), (SVM), Logistic Regression and Quadratic Discriminant classifiers. The best success rate was found when using Logistic Regression and Quadratic Discriminant. This work introduces different classification techniques to detect confusion by collecting an actual database that can be used to evaluate the performance for every CDS employing facial expressions and selecting appropriate facial features.

Intelligent controller Design based on wind-solar system

Areeg F. Hussein; Hanan A. R. Akkar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 326-337
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168115

This paper presents an Intelligent controller designed to mastery the output power flow from the Solar System, the Wind system, the sum of the two systems or from the battery system, according to the Maximum power point tracking algorithm, to ensure the continuity of the output power at fast time response. The proposed controller has been designed using MATLAB m-file and trained with the different number of hidden neurons using two different algorithms to get as fast a response time with minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) as possible which resulted in six hidden neurons using Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithms.