Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 39, Issue 3

Volume 39, Issue 3, April 2021, Page 338-519

Chemical Precipitation method for Sulphate Removal from Treated Wastewater of Al-Doura Refinery

Aumar Alnakeeb; Rana Mohammed Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 338-354
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168116

Wastewater treatment by Wastewater Treatment Plant, named (INGECO) in Doura refinery suffers from the elevated level of sulphate ion concentrations compared to the recommended EPA [14] specified (250 mg/L). The annual rate, maximum and peak sulphate concentrations that found to be 360; 425 and 550 mg/L respectively. In this study samples prepared from industrial wastewater and the average, maximum and peak sulphate concentrations to be used in chemical precipitation process by using BaCl2 or Al(OH)3. Results obtained from BaCl2 treatment refer to the optimum (dosage, mixing time and mixing speed) to be used in sulphate removal for reuse purpose were (1.5 g/L, 1.2 hr and 80 rpm), (2.25 g/L, 1.5 hr and 90 rpm) and (3.0 g/L, 2 hr and 90 rpm) for each of average, maximum and peak concentrations respectively. Whereas for disposal purpose, were (0.36 g/L, 15 min and 100 rpm), (1.1 g/L, 15 min and 70 rpm), (1.72 g/L, 15 min and 90 rpm) respectively. This process was achieving of highly sulphate removal, but expensive. Whereas the results obtained by using Al(OH)3 indicated unsuitability for treated refinery wastewater treatment of low sulphate concentrations and neutral pH.

Design of Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller for Uncertain Pendulum System

Dina H. Tohma; Ahmed K. Hamoudi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 355-369
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168117

This work aims to study and apply the adaptive sliding mode controller (ASMC) for the pendulum system with the existence of the parameters uncertainty, external disturbances, and coulomb friction. The adaptive sliding mode controller has several features over the conventional sliding mode control method. Firstly, the magnitude of the control signal is reduced to the minimally acceptable level defined by special conditions concerned with ASMC algorithm. Secondly, the upper bounds of uncertainties are not necessary to be defined before starting the work. For this reason, the ASMC can be used successfully to control the pendulum system with minimum control effort. These properties of the ASMC are confirming graphically by the simulation results using MATLAB 2019. The ASMC achieves an asymptotically stable system better than the Classical Sliding Mode Controller (CSMC). The unwanted phenomenon is called “chattering", which is appearing in the control action signal. These drawback properties are suppressed by employing a saturation function. Finally, the comparison between the results of the ASMC and CSMC showed that ASMC is the better one.

Backstepping Control Strategy for Overhead Crane System

Mohammed Y. Khudhair; Mohammed Y. Hassan; Saleem K. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 370-381
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168118

Swinging on the shifted load by overhead crane is one of the main problems that all researchers suffer from. In addition, the crane system is a nonlinear and under-actuated system. Furthermore it is multivariable problem and it has coupling between its parameters (x, . In this work, a developed type of anti-sway Backstepping controller is proposed to solve swinging on the shifted load for full non-linear overhead crane system. Simulation results were validated against the related articles previously published which used Fuzzy Logic control. The enhancement is measured for Backstepping control as a swinging to achieve 50.7%, 38.1% and 42.5% when it is compared with Fuzzy Logic control. The performance of the overhead crane is enhanced from 70.4% to 51% at the control action consumptions.

(Polyphenyl Sulfone - Polyether Sulfone) Blending to Performance Flat Sheet Membrane to Remove Some Heavy and Radioactive Elements from Phosphogypsum Waste

Waleed T.Rashid; Israa A. Alkadir; Moayyed G. Jalhoom; Khalid T. Rashid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 382-393
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168119

In this research, the traditional version of the phase inversion method was used to fabricate a flat sheet of a blended membrane. The method was involved using a polymer that blends polyether sulfone (PES) varied proportions (0,3,4 and 5 wt.%), and polyphenyl sulfone (PPSU) was 20wt%. It was found that with the addition of PES, the membrane properties increased, the best properties were with 4%wt. The ratio was chosen PES 4wt% to study the effect of time, temperature, and pressure on the rejection of heavy and radioactive elements. The increase in the porosity was with the addition of 4% PES. The rejection of heavy and radioactive elements for thUF membrane increases with increasing of the operating pressure and time. While by increasing the temperature, the rejection of heavy and radioactive elements for thUF membrane decreased. The rejection of K, Th, and Pb are higher than other elements, the order of the rejection is K˃Th˃Pb˃U˃Cd˃Zn˃Cu>Ni.

Design and Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles Application

Mustafa Y. Bdewi; Ahmed M. Mohammed; Mohammed M. Ezzaldean

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 394-406
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168120

In electrical vehicle applications, power density plays a significant role in improving machine performance. The main objective of this paper is to design and analyze the performance of in-wheel outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) used in electric vehicles based on a previously designed model. The key challenge is to achieve the best machine performance regarding the highest torque density and lowest torque ripple. This work also aims at reducing the machine cost by using permanent magnet (PM) material, which has less energy density than the PM used in the previously designed model. An optimization procedure is carried out to improve the generated torque, keeping the same aspects of size and volume of the selected machine. On the other hand, the other specifications of the machine are taken into consideration and are maintained within the acceptable level. According to their major impact on the machine’s performance, the most important parameters of machine designing is selected during the optimization procedure. This proposed machine is implemented and tested using the finite element software package “MagNet 7.4.1” with Visual Basic 16.0 programming language and MATLAB 9.5 Simulink for post-processing.

Effect of Oil – Corrosion on Tensile and Fatigue S-N Curve Properties of AA6061-T6

Hussain J.M. Al-Alkawi; Ghgada A. Aziz; Shmoos R. Mazel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 407-414
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168121

The present study described the effect of shot peening on mechanical properties and rotating corrosion –fatigue behavior (strength and life) of AA6061-T6. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield stress (YS) were reduced by 4.6% and 1.24% when immersing the tensile samples in crude oil for 60 days. The values of (UTS) and (YS) were raised from 307 to 316 MPa and from 248 to 254 MPa respectively when treated for 10 min. shot peening (SP). Hardness of oil corrosion samples dropped due to pitting corrosion and slightly raised for SP prior to corrosion samples. Oil corrosion reduced the fatigue strength by (-1.25%). This percentage was enhanced due to SP to 2.377%. SP significantly increased the rotating fatigue life by a factor of 1.19 and 1.3 at (UTS) and (Ys) loads respectively. (SP) technique improved corrosion-fatigue resistance due to producing compressive residual stresses at surface layers.

Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of Plane Steel Frame with Rubberized Connecting Technology Subjected to Seismic Effect

Suhaib J. Ali; Amer M. Ibrahim; Sarmad Shafeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 415-425
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168122

This paper represents experimental and numerical study the behavior of the rubberized steel frame connections. One single-bay, one-story without elastic buckling are cyclically tested. The experimental specimens are simulated and analyzed by the ABAQUS program. Four specimens of steel plane portal frame are investigated under horizontal reversed cyclic loads. The specimen connections are developed by using different diameters of composite steel bolts/rubber instead of conventional steel bolts to connect the beams with columns. The yield and ultimate strength, ductility, envelope curves, and damping ratio of these specimens are analyzed and compared. The finite element method is used to establish and verify the results of the laboratory test. The results of the experimental and numerical tests gave a large load-carrying capacity, reduction in the stresses, excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity, and remarkably improved damping ratio.

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Saad A. Al-Taan; Ayad A. Abdul-Razzak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 426-439
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168123

This paper presents a study on the behavior of fiber reinforced concrete slabs using finite element analysis. A previously published finite element program is used for the nonlinear analysis by including the steel fiber concrete properties. Concrete is represented by degenerated quadratic thick shell element, which is the general shear deformable eight node serendipity element, and the thickness is divided into layers. An elastic perfectly plastic and strain hardening plasticity approach are used to model the compression behavior of concrete. The reinforcing bars were smeared within the concrete layers and assumed as either an elastic perfectly plastic material or as an elastic-plastic material with linear strain hardening. Cracks initiation is predicted using a tensile strength criterion. The tension stiffening effect of the steel fibers is simulated using a descending parabolic stress degradation function, which is based on the fracture energy concept. The effect of cracking in reducing the shear modulus and the compressive strength of concrete parallel to the crack direction is considered. The numerical results showed good agreement with published experimental results for two fibrous reinforced concrete slabs.

Estimation of the Components of Residential Solid Waste in Baqubah City and their Generation Rate

Esraa Q. Shehab; Zainab B. Mohammed; Mohammed Y. Fattah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 440-452
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168124

Municipal solid waste is of variable, non-uniform inconsistent nature and the method by which the sample to acquire is decisive if the results are to be reliable. For data collection, an integrated methodological approach was introduced, including field investigation, questionnaire survey, and personal interviews, which were employed to estimate the rate of waste production and physical composition at the source of generation. Samples were collected from different socio-economic clusters (socio-income level). According to the results of the preliminary survey for 99% confidence interval and 10% standard error, the optimum sample size was 105 households, in Baqubah City in Diyala Governorate by implementation a completely random block design for sampling. Up to 105 units were sampled which were allocated to high, middle, and low-income socio-economic categories, yielding an average of 650 kg of waste collected daily for one week. It is concluded that Baqubah city has an average generation rate of 0.56 kg/ person/ day which is lower in the high-economic level zone in the city than in the other zones. Among the total waste generated in the city, 68% is food waste, 5.2% paper waste,7.4% plastic waste, 5.8% metal, 2.3% glass waste,3.1% textile waste, while the remaining percentages represent miscellaneous combustible and noncombustible materials.

Optimal Placement and Size of Distributed Generators Based on Autoadd and PSO to Improve Voltage Profile and Minimize Power Losses

Mustafa R. Nasser; Inaam I. Ali; Mohammed H. Alkhafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168125

This work aims to improve the voltage profile and reduce electrical network losses through optimal planning of distributed generators. A new search algorithm (Autoadd) along with the (PSO) are introduced to choose the best location and size for distributed generators. Two systems are implemented; a 33-bus test network and a 30-bus of a local community in the city of Al- Diwaniyah. At the power flow, a solution is implemented using a fixed-point iteration method within an OpenDSS environment to check the performance of both networks. Moreover, the optimal location and size of the distributed generators are determined using Autoadd and PSO methods. The Autoadd method is implemented within the OpenDSS environment, while the (PSO) method is implemented within the MATLAB-OpenDSS environment through the com-interface. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed methods are validated by comparison with the published researches. The results have proven that the fixed-point method has achieved high efficiency and accuracy in terms of analyzing the power flow, whereas the (Autoadd) algorithm has achieved a better effect in terms of improving the voltage profile and minimizing losses

Design of an Optimal Backstepping Controller for Nonlinear System under Disturbance

Luay T. Rasheed; Mohammed K. Hamzah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 465-476
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168126

The aim of the work for this paper is the design of an optimal backstepping controller for a nonlinear pendulum system to stabilize the position of pendulum’s ball suspended in the desired position. The Cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA) has been utilized to get and tune the gain variables of the proposed backstepping controller in order to find the best torque action for the system. The numerical simulation results using (MATLAB package) show the robustness and the effectiveness of the proposed backstepping based COA controller in terms of obtaining the best torque control action without a saturation state that will stabilize the pendulum system performance. The simulation results show also that the proposed control system when compared with the other controller results has the capability of minimizing the pendulum’s ball position tracking error to the zero value at the steady state response and speeding up the system response. Moreover, the fitness evaluation value is reduced.

A Novel Recursive Heuristic Algorithm for Straight and U-Shaped Assembly Line Balancing with Fuzzy Processing Time

Samah. A. Aufy; AllaEldin. H. Kassam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 477-487
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168127

The paper aims to address the straight and U–type assembly line balancing problems by developing a novel recursive heuristic algorithm based on the idea of the depth of search. The dynamic fuzzy processing time (DFPT) model is employed to represent uncertainty and ambiguity related to the processing time in the actual production systems. The novel algorithm, the minimum cycle time objective is considered for a set of imposed considerers. They are arranged in an appropriate strategy in which three-stages are proposed and presented as a solution approach. Finally, the validity of the developed solution approach is evaluated through a tested numerical example conducted over a test problem taken from literature to assess its performance. This study proofs their ability and efficiency in assisting decision-making by determining the contribution proportion for significant assignment variables represented by skill level, work stability, type layout, and priority rule

Modelling of Future Water Use Scenarios Using WEAP Model: A Case Study in Baghdad City, Iraq

Mustafa M. Al-Mukhtar; Ghasaq S. Mutar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 488-503
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168128

Iraq is one of the Middle East countries that suffer from water scarcity. In addition to the water policy of the upstream riparian countries; rapid population increase, economic growth, and climate changes are the major stressors of water resources available for domestic and agricultural sectors in this country. Therefore, it is of importance to determine the optimal water management methodology. This study aims to identify the optimal water allocation among the domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors of Baghdad city under present and potential future scenarios. As such, the WEAP model was used to assess and analyze the current and projected balance of water resource management. The model was firstly calibrated and validated using the monthly streamflow data at Sarai station on the Tigris River. Subsequently, the calibrated model was fed with different future scenarios over the period 2020-2040. The employed future scenarios included normal growth population rate (I), high growth population rate (II), halved river discharges (III), combined scenario of the high population with halved water flow (ΙV) and the simulated future water year type scenario (V). Results proved that the WEAP model satisfactorily modeled the water supply/demand in Baghdad with R2 and Pbias of 0.73 and 2.43%, respectively during the validation period. Also, it was found that the water demand and supply were unmet under all proposed future scenarios which implies that there is a swift need for sustainable water management in Iraq and in Baghdad.

Al2O3-TiO2-PMMA Bio-Composite Coating Via Electrostatic Spray Technique

Rasha A. Issa; Mohanad N. Al-Shroofy; Hanna A. Al-Kaisy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 504-511
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168129

This work aims preparation of polymer-based biocomposite coating by electrostatic spray method onto 316L stainless steel substrate, the present work will compare the effects of incorporation of Al2O3 and TiO2 particles at a different percentage of (10,15 and 20 % wt. from Al2O3 and TiO2 with (90,85 and 80% wt. PMMA - based electrostatic deposition coating is studied. The structure and chemical composition of composite coatings were studied by using (SEM) & (EDS) and mechanical properties (Microhardness and adhesion strength) of Al2O3-TiO2-PMMA composite coating. The SEM&EDX result showed that the composite coating to be dense with uniform dispersants and continuous with a well homogenous mixture within coating exhibits a much-increased Microhardness and remarkably improved adhesion strength.

Assessment of the Water Quality Index of the Tigris River between the University of Baghdad and Diyala River

Ayat N. Abed; Gahyda Y. Al Kindi; Tariq A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 512-519
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168130

The Tigris River is considered as one of the two major rivers in Iraq. Many factories are located on both bank of the river such as the public company for soft drinks, Al-Dura oil refinery, chemical, plastic, and leather factories, Dura electricity station, and others. It is well known that most discharge effluents into the river do not match national standard specifications. In addition, the major aim of the presented work is to assess the Water Quality Index (WQI) for the Tigris River starting from The University of Baghdad to 0.5 km downflow the confluence of the Diyala River. The samples were collected during a six months period; one sample each month for fifteen locations along the Tigris River. Different parameters were studied to calculate the water quality index: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), NO3, Heavy Metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Zinc), and pH. The water quality index with regard to such samples is ranging between (58.24 and 160.66) and classified between poor to unfit.