Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 39, Issue 7

Volume 39, Issue 7, July 2021, Page 1041-1205


Research Paper

Effect of Tigris River's Stage on the Groundwater Level

Mustafa T. Al-Tahir; Thair S. Khayyun

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1041-1051
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.442

The research studies the effect of change of the Tigris  River's surface stage on groundwater movement by building a three-dimension model  using GMS model for a catchment area in Baghdad city. The model is built and calibrated by using the information of 16 wells for the year 2015 . Three scenarios of river elevation stage are used when the stage  elevation is maximum, average and minimum. The movement of groundwater according to the results was from the north-west to the Tigris River location. Also, the results show the velocity of groundwater in case of the minimum water surface level stage is greater than the other cases because of the high hydraulic gradient. The velocity of groundwater in layer one for all cases is very slow because of the low permeability.

Effect of CO2 Laser Fluence in Cladding Process on the Microstructure of Cold Rolled 0.2 % Carbon Steel

Suhair A. Hussein; Mohammed Kadhim; Mahdi M. Hanon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1052-1059
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1475

In this article a 1.8kW continuous wave of high power CO2 laser was used to clad of a titular composition of Ni – 10 wt% Al powder on cold rolled 0.2% carbon steel substrate. The feed rate was kept constant after many preliminary claddings at approximately 11 g/min.  In order to produce clads with different specific energies and interaction times, different traverse speeds were used in the range of 1.5 to 12.5 mm/s. The microstructure of substrate was changed at the heat affected zones under the variety of specific energies. The cladded coatings showed the presence of ɣ solid solution and β (NiAlFe) phases. A strong metallurgical bonding produced between the substrate and the clad coat at fluence higher than 48 J/mm2. The changing in microstructure were observed using both microscope and SEM. The microhardness was evaluated using Vickerʼs microhardness test. The microstructure of the substrate was ferrite and pearlite transformed to martensite at the region adjacent to the clad interface. It followed by a three regions can be classified, a grain growth zone (large grains of austenite/ferrite and pearlite), recrystallization zone (fine grains of austenite/ferrite and pearlite) and recovery zone (the structure has a little changes from the structure of low carbon steel). The microhardness testing result showed higher values for the clad regions compared with substrate. This study emphasize the possibility to develop a temporary new graded material.

A Study about E-Commerce Based on Customer Behaviors

Zainab N. Mohammed; Suhad M. Kadhem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1060-1068
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1631

E-commerce is one of the new virtual technologies that make life simpler for both traders, marketers, and customers. However, the main problem for the seller was how to know customer's intentions when they enter the website. This paper proposed to predict whether customers make a purchase or not from their previous behaviors.  Therefore, this paper aims to predict the intentions of users that using online -shopping. the main aim of this study is to highlight customer behaviors to predict purchases and make a compression between the works that are related to the subject of this paper to conclude and suggest the best method to predict purchasing in e-commerce treading that depends on customer behaviors.

Intrusion Detection System for NSL-KDD Dataset Based on Deep Learning and Recursive Feature Elimination

Bilal Mohammed; Ekhlas K. Gbashi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1069-1079
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1695

Intrusion detection system is responsible for monitoring the systems and detect attacks, whether on (host or on a network) and identifying attacks that could come to the system and cause damage to them, that’s mean an IDS prevents unauthorized access to systems by giving an alert to the administrator before causing any serious harm. As a reasonable supplement of the firewall, intrusion detection technology can assist systems to deal with offensive, the Intrusions Detection Systems (IDSs) suffers from high false positive which leads to highly bad accuracy rate. So this work is suggested to implement (IDS) by using a Recursive Feature Elimination to select features and use Deep Neural Network (DNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) for classification, the suggested model gives good results with high accuracy rate reaching 94%, DNN was used in the binary classification to classify either attack or Normal, while RNN was used in the classifications for the five classes (Normal, Dos, Probe, R2L, U2R). The system was implemented by using (NSL-KDD) dataset, which was very efficient for offline analyses systems for IDS.   

Effect of Pile's Number on the Behavior of Piled Raft Foundation

Dheyaa H. Hadi; Mohanned Q. Waheed; Mohammed Y. Fattah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1080-1091
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1795

This paper introduces an experimental research on the behavior of the piled raft foundation (PRF) in sand of two states (loose and medium sand). A small model has been tested in a soil container and the vertical load was applied to the foundation through a pneumatic jack. The settlement of the foundation was measured using a displacement transducer; three sensors were attached to the pile heads to measure the axial load borne in a group by each pile by the Arduino data logger. The laboratory experiments were carried out on models of (1 pile), (1x2), (1x3), (2x3), (3 x3), (3 piles triangular), (4 piles diamond), (5 piles), and (9 pile circle), as well as to tests on an unpiled raft. Test variables were pile length, number of piles, and sand density. It is noticed that when the piles increased to nine piles in the group, the bearing capacity increased by 40%. The effect starts to increase when one pile is just placed under the raft as the bearing capacity of the piled raft increased by 3% and 7% when the pile length is 15D and, 20D, respectively. The reduction in the settlement is also observed to be smaller and no economic advantage is achieved with more increase in the number of piles. If the number of piles reaches (6) piles, the influence of the piled raft on settlement reduction disappears.

Retrofitting of SCC Deep Beams With Circular Openings Using CFRP

Nabeel A. Al-Bayati; Dhiyaa H. Mohammed; Nawfal A. Abdul Jabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1092-1104
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.74

The main objectives of this study are: encouraging the production and use of  self-compacting  concrete,  use  of  materials  which  are  lightweight,  easy to  use,  and  highly  efficient  in  the  retrofitting  of  reinforced  concrete buildings. Six deep beams specimens (L= length of 1400mm, h= height of 400mm,   and   b=   width   of   150mm)   were   cast   using   self-compacting concrete.  The  location  of  the  openings  is  in  the  middle  of  assumed  load path.  Five  patterns  were  adopted  to  arrange  carbon  fiber  reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips. The cylinder compressive strength of the concrete was  approximately  equal  for  all  beams  and  was  about  (44  MPa)  at  28 days  age.  All  the  beams  have  the  same  steel  reinforcement  for  shear  and flexure. There have been many tests for fresh and hardened concrete. The reinforced  concrete  deep  beams  were  tested  up  to  (60%)  of  the  ultimate load of control beams to simulate degree of damage, and then released the load. After that,the beams were retrofitted using (CFRP) strips, and then the beams were tested to failure. The study was focused on determining the vertical mid-span deflection, ultimate load, the load that causes first shear and flexural cracks, and mode of failure. Theresults showed that, the best increase in the ultimate failure load was (27.27%) and achieved using the inclined  strips  pattern  and  the  pattern  of  vertical  and  horizontal  strips together.  Reduction  in  the  deflection  values  for  the  retrofitted  beams compared  to  the  control  beam  by  about  (12-13%)  due  to  restrictions imposed by CFRP strips and the epoxy.

FPGA Implementation of Modified Reconfigurable Adaptive Gain Scheduling Controller

Ali Wheed; Abbas H. Issa; Mohammed Y. Y.

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1105-1116
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1772

This article aims to put forward a modified type of adaptive gain scheduling that will be able to deal with the immeasurable and unpredictable variations of system variables by adapting its value at each time instance to follow any change in the input and overcome any disturbance applied to the system without the need to predetermine gains values. In addition, the inverse neural controller will precede the gain scheduling to eliminate the need for complex system linear zing and parameter estimation. Therefore, the problems of needing complex mathematics for system linearization and gains calculations have been solved. The performance of the presented controller was tested by comparing the step response of a DC-motor controlled via the proposed technique and the response of that motor when controlled by the inverse neural controller and PID controller. MATLAB/Simulink has been used for making the simulations and obtaining the results. In addition, the FPGA implementation of the proposed controller has been presented. The results showed a remarkable improvement in the transient response of the system for all of the rising time, delay time, settling time, peak overshoot, and steady-state error.

A Survey in Implementation and Applications of Electroencephalograph (EEG)-Based Brain-Computer Interface

Samaa S. Abdulwahab; Hussain Kareem Khleaf; Manal H. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1117-1132
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1854

A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is an external system that controls activities and processes in the physical world based on brain signals. In Passive BCI, artificial signals are automatically generated by a computer program without any input from nerves in the body. This is useful for individuals with mobility issues. Traditional BCI has been dependent only on recording brain signals with Electroencephalograph (EEG) and has used a rule-based translation algorithm to generate control commands. These systems have developed very accurate translation systems. This paper is about the different methods for adapting the signals from the brain. It has been mentioned that various kinds of surveys in the past to serve the purpose of the present research. This paper shows a simple and easy analysis of each technique and its respective benefits and drawbacks, including signal acquisition, signal pre-processing, feature classification and classification. Finally,  discussed is the application of EEG-based BCI.

Effect of Growth Time on the Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of the 1%Fe doped TiO2 p-type Synthesized by Hydrothermal Technique

Sattar J. Hashim; Odai N. Salman; Khaleel I. Hassoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1133-1143
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1874

In this work, a hydrothermal technique is employed to prepare titanium dioxide films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. A low-cost homemade autoclave was used to fabricate iron-doped -TiO2 films (1at. %Fe) at different reaction times from 1 to 4 hours.  X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the predominant phase is rutile (R-TiO2) with peaks at (101), (002), and (112). The XRD results showed that with increasing reaction time the peaks become sharper and narrowed. The images of the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed that with increasing reaction time the films appeared to have vertically aligned TiO2 nanorods. The atomic force microscope (AFM) results illustrated that surface roughness and the root means square was decreased with increasing the reaction time. UV-visible spectroscopy analysis revealed that the energy bandgap value (Eg) decreased with reaction time up to 3 hours. Urbach energy for the grown films was found to be decreased with increasing growth time. The electrical measurements indicated that all TiO2 films had p-type conductivity.

Effect of Embedment and Spacing Ratios on the Response of Lateral Load of Single and Group Piles

Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Mohammed H. Al-Dahlaki; Aya H. Chalob

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1144-1152
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1881

This paper displays an experimental work of three-scale model tests of single pile and nine–scale model tests of group pile (1x2) with spacing to diameter (S/D) ratios (2,4, and 6) respectively. The pile models inserted in the medium-dense dry sand with a relative density of 60% and different length to diameter (L/D) ratios (15, 25, and 30) were subjected to the lateral load with a rate of 2.5 mm/min. The test results present the effect of the change of the ratio of (L/D) and (S/D) on lateral displacements at the head of the pile. For single and group piles when the embedment ratio (L/D) increases, the ultimate lateral load increases also for group piles.When the (S/D) ratio increases, the ultimate lateral load increases. However, for (L/D) equal to 20, this increment is not linear with spacing increment, where a slight increment is observed of the relatively close pile and vice versa. While for other (L/D) ratios the increment of pile load is increased linearly with spacing increase.

Structural Behavior of Retrofitted Reinforced SCC Continuous Deep Beam With CFRP and Hybrid Techniques

Wisam J. Al -Bdari; Nabeel A. Al-Bayati; Ihsan Ali Al-Shaarbaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1153-1163
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1928

In this research, the results of experimental test of seven reinforced SCC continuous deep beams after being retrofitting by CFRP with different techniques. The main objective of the current research is to investigate the structural behavior in the shear performance and failure modes. The first beam tested up to failure and assumed as reference beam, while remaining six beams firstly loaded with 65% of ultimate load capacity then retrofitted by three systems namely: externally bonded reinforcing (EBR) by CFRP strips, near surface mounted technique (NSM) CFRP rods and the third system was hybrid technique by composite between EBR CFRP strips and NSM CFRP rods. The experimental results show that applying the EBR CFRP strips in a vertical direction improved the loading capacity in comparison with the horizontal direction. On the other hand, the NSM CFRP rods applied in horizontal direction presented higher values in both ultimate loading capacity and final deflection, where the increasing in ultimate load capacity about 43.48%, and the increasing in deflection about 33.5% compared with control beam. Therefore, it can be concluded that applying the hybrid technique is more efficient when the EBR strips and NSM bars applied in the vertical, and the horizontal directions, respectively.

Programing and Procedure Design of Stand-alone PV System for Clean Energy Home Supply in Baghdad

Sarah A. Al-shammari; AbdulHassan A. Karamallah; sattar J Habeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1164-1173
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1976

Global demand for energy production is in an increasing trend. However, a gap between energy production and energy demand still represents an industrial challenge. Iraq, like too many developing countries, is an example of such problematic. To tackle these issues, renewable energy could be a valid solution. Renewable energy becomes necessary especially the unique location of the received solar energy and long daylight. Many pieces of research deal with maximum benefit from this condition. This paper discusses the design stand-alone PV system for one home in Baghdad and sizing all components in that system start with energy demand, inverter power, PV, battery bank, and connections with each other by design a simple calculation program. Computational modeling was performed to evaluate different designs. Cost efficiency of system performance based on the domestic market prices was estimated and compared with electrical provide from conventional electrical plants (grid and local generator).

Sensing Performance of Mono and Bimetallic Nano Photonics Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Devices

Doaa S. Jubair; Alwan M. Alwan; Walid K. Hamoudi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1174-1184
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1982

In this research, sensing performance of mono and bimetallic nanophotonics SERS sensors of gold-silver nano-columns for the detection of chlorpyrifos was investigated. For optimum substrates for Gold-silver/nano-column surface-enhanced, Raman scattering (SERS) was achieved with the silicon substrate. By combining the Ag SERS activity with the Au chemical stability and nano-columns Si large field enhancement, the Au-Ag/nano-columns Si substrate revealed perfect reproducibility, homogeneity, sensitivity in addition to chemical stability. The sensors were tested by Atomic force microscope (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Findings presented in this research indicated modified distributions and sizes of formed alloy nanoparticles, and the hot spots junctions within the nanophotonics layer after changing the nanoparticles types. The SERS sensors performance displayed an excellent recognition of ultra-low concentrations of chlorpyrifos solutions with an exponential relationship with the Raman signal. The highest enhancement factor (Ef=1.56×106) and minimum limit of detection 0.069 mg/Kg were obtained with Au-Ag sensors.

The Hausdorff Algebra Fuzzy Distance and its Basic Properties

Zainab A. Khudhair; Jehad R. Kider

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1185-1194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.2001

In this article we recall the definition of algebra fuzzy metric space and its basic properties. In order to introduced the Hausdorff algebra fuzzy metric from fuzzy compact set to another fuzzy compact set we define the algebra fuzzy distance between two fuzzy compact sets after that basic properties of  the Hausdorff algebra fuzzy metric between two fuzzy compact sets are proved. Finally the main result in this paper is proved that is if (S, m, ) is a fuzzy complete algebra fuzzy metric space then (AFH(S), h,  ) is a fuzzy complete algebra fuzzy metric space.

Chitosan Hydrogel for Removing of Heavy Metal Ions from Water: A Review

Maysaa A. Ali; Shemaa A. Soud; Anaheed H. Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1195-1205
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.2015

Industrial and agricultural discharges have been shown as important sources for a wide range of contaminants like heavy metals. This study focused on the assessment of the toxic effect of heavy metals and illustrates some methods of eliminating or avoiding these contaminants. In certain methods, heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb, Hg, and Cd) are recovered, and range of absorbents are tested. A number of studies have reported the complex interaction of polymers with metal ions with the polymers for eliminating heavy metals (e.g. cellulose, chitosan, and chitin. Metal ions are absorbed by these polymers by the amine and hydroxyl groups. They have unique features that incorporate polyxysalt arrangement, capacity to frame films, optical underlying qualities, and chelates metal particles. Chemical bonds, pH, crystallinity, and deacetylation are controlling the mechanism and performance of the absorption. Some methods increase the efficiency, selectivity, and quality of chitosan: the first is through chemical modification employing grafting and crosslinking, and the second by physical modification, such as manufacturing gel granules and reducing crystallization. This study aims to investigate the removal of heavy metals from water by the sorption method and to study and analyze literature dealing with this topic using chitosan hydrogel.