Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 38, Issue 2

Volume 38, Issue 2, March 2020

Analysis and Design of Beams Reinforced with Steel Fiber and Composite Plates

Mereen H. Fahmi Rasheed; Ayad Z. Saber Agha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 113-125
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168181

The addition of epoxy bending plate to the tension and compression faces or web is an effective technique for flexural or shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, also using of steel fibers with concrete improves the structural behavior and increases the moment capacity and shear resistance of the beams. General equations are derived for predicting the bending moment capacity, maximum and balancing reinforcement ratio the equivalent depth of the compression zone for singly and doubly reinforced rectangular sections and T-beams. The results indicate that bending moment capacity increased in beams with steel fibers and composite plates, while the maximum balancing reinforcement ratios are decreased.

Computational Analysis of Punching Shear Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Mereen H. Fahmi Rasheed; Ayad Z. Saber Agha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 126-142
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168182

A computational analysis is presented to predict the ultimate and cracking shear strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete slabs. Different models are suggested considering the effect of concrete compressive and tensile strength, amount of flexural reinforcements, yield strength of the reinforcement bars and steel fiber properties (volume percent, aspect ratio, and type of steel fibers). The predicted results are compared with the experimental data found in literature and found good agreement.

Preliminary Investigation on G Cement Modified by Nano-Powder

Doaa M. Abdullah; Alaa A. Abdullalhameed; Farhad M. Othman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 143-151
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168183

A proper slurry design is critical to cementing work success. In the present investigation, a ball mill method was utilized for preparing a nano powder from a cement dust material, supplied via Al-Kufa Cement Factory, to reinforce the oil well cement by utilizing it as a partial replacement of oil well cement class (G) using different weight percentages (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%). A mixture having water to cement ratio of (0.44) was produced. The produced samples characterizations were achieved via the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) as well as the density and compressive strength. Results showed that the structural characteristics were enhanced with the phase formation of the calcium silicate hydration (C-S-H), and both density and compressive strength were improved. Accordingly, obtained results suggest that the modified cement is suitable for the oil well uses.

Study of Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Plate SA-516 Gr. 70 Welded by SAW Using V-Shape Joint Design

Samir A. Amin; Mohannad Y. Hanna; Abdulaziz S. Khider

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 152-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168184

Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion type welding and it is considered one of the most important welding types due to its inherent capabilities of high welding speed, high deposition rate, welding large thickness plates owing to its deep penetration characteristic and many other advantages. In this study, the goal was to investigate the effect of welding parameters, namely (welding current and welding speed) as well as the joint design on the mechanical properties (yield stress, bending force on the face of the weldment and hardness of the weld metal. Experiments were conducted employing Design of Expert (DOE) software and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique. The experiments were conducted by welding ASME SA-516 Gr. 70 steel plate with dimension (300 mm × 150 mm × 10 mm) depending upon the design matrix developed via the DOE. Results manifested that the optimum process parameters for maximum yield stress, maximum bending force and minimum hardness were at (425 amps) welding current and (35 cm/min) welding speed, where the arc voltage was held constant at (37 volts). The optimum values for the yield stress, bending force and hardness were (474.447 MPa, 36.997 kN and 150 HV), respectively. Finally, it was found that the predicted and experimental results of yield stress, bending force and hardness agree very well according to the ultimate error (1.05%, 1.92%, and 4.25 %), respectively.

Cost Risk Management for Variation Orders in Road Projects in Iraq

Abeer J. Hassan; Raid S. Abd Ali; Hassan H. Joni

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 166-172
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168185

This paper aims to develop appropriate solutions for each of the causes for the change orders, which help to manage the cost risk in road projects in Iraq. The literature was reviewed in detail, and the objectives were implemented by using a questionnaire that was distributed to specialists in the public sector to survey all possible causes for exceeding the cost of road projects. As a result, 35 causes were identified for a large number of change orders in road projects and their classification into four axes: design, implementation, financial, and other causes. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using the relative importance index (RII). As a result, the main causes of the change orders were the variations in design and the quantities of work. The main effect was found to be an increase in the cost of the project. Finally, solutions were collected for each of the factors causing the change order through personal interviews with professionals and consultants.

The Characterization and Modeling the Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete (HSC) Modified with Fly Ash (FA)

Saman M. Kamal; Jalal A. Saeed; Ahmed Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 173-184
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168186

One of the main challenges facing Civil Engineering community is to modify cement quantity in the mix design by admixtures to enhance the mechanical properties. According to more than 1000 data from literature, mechanical characteristics of concrete modified with FA were discussed. The statistical variation with modeling were achieved by set of data. The cement was replaced up to 70% with FA (weight of dry cement) and by cube of concrete testing up to 90 days of curing time and different w/c ratio. The compressive strength of concrete varied from 18-67 MPa, while, for modified concrete with FA, compressive strength ranged from 21-94 MPa, tensile strength ranged from 1-9 MPa and flexural strengths ranged from 3 - 10 MPa. The w/c ratio of concrete modified with FA varied from 0.24-0.53, also the FA content varied from 0-50 %. Vipulanandan correlation model was effective by connecting mechanical properties and compare with Hoek-Brown model. The nonlinear model was used to investigate the effect of FA on properties of normal and high strength concrete. Study results presented a worthy correlation between compressive strength and curing time, w/c ratio and FA content. By using the interactive linked (model) for compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths of concrete quantified well as a function of w/c ratio, curing time and FA content by using a nonlinear relationship.

Multi-Objective Optimization of Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Alloy (2024-T3)

Abbas K. Hussein; Laith K. Abbas; Ahmed A. Seger

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 185-198
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168187

In this research, a multi-response optimization based on Taguchi method is proposed for friction stir welding (FSW) process for (2024-T3) aluminum alloy. Three different shoulder diameters of tools with tapered pin geometry of (12, 14 and 14 mm) with variable rotation speed (710, 1000 and 1400 rpm) and welding speed of (40, 56 and 80 mm/min), three different tilting angles of (1, 2 and 3 degree) and three welding direction of (1, 2 and 3 passes). The results of this work showed the single optimization by using (Taguchi method) at the optimum condition for the tensile strength and yield strength were (365 MPa) and (258 MPa) respectively; at the parameters: shoulder diameter (14 mm), rotation speed (1400 rpm), linear speed (40 mm/min), tilting angle ((3°) for tensile strength and (1°) for yield strength) and welding direction (3 passes). The results of multi-response optimization for (FSW) process at the optimum condition for tensile strength and yield strength were (371 MPa) and (268 MPa), respectively; at the parameters: shoulder diameter (14 mm), rotation speed (1400 rpm), linear speed (40 mm/min), tilting angle (3°) and welding direction (3 passes).

Design of Efficient Inductive Power Link with Small Size Planar Spiral Coil Receiver for Medical Applications

Muammer M. Omran; Ahmed S. Ezzulddin; Saad Mutashar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 199-210
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168188

The efficiency of a WPT system greatly depends on both the geometry and operating frequency of the transmitting and receiving structures. Genetic optimizations algorithms are presented to prepare the proposed design parameters using MATLAB to optimize the link efficiency. Single and double layer PSCs are optimally designed with minimal proximity losses effect. In this paper, we used the benefit of a double layer technique to miniaturize the receiver PCS size. The proposed single layer (10×10) mm2 and double layer (8×8) mm2 PSCs are validated and simulated using HFSS 15.03 software at a frequency of 13.56MHz in both cases of the air, and human biological skin tissue as intermediate material between the transmitter and receiver PSCs. The calculated and simulated results of both proposed receiver PSCs are compared for both cases of intermediate materials for their efficiency behaviors. The results show that in the case of biological tissue, the deterioration in PTE using 8mm double layer receiver is only 6.5 % (PTE =70.96%), which is less than 13.5 % (PTE=68.6%) using single layer 10mm receiver. A comparative survey has been done for similar works of different authors in the last decade. In comparison with other works, the proposed double layer (8×8) mm2 PSCs is smaller in size and more efficient for use in the IMDs.

An Analytic Design Approach to Inverse Class-F RF Power Amplifiers

Firas M. Ali; Mahmuod H. Al-Muifraje; Thamir R. Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 211-225
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168189

The design of high efficiency inverse class-F (class-F-1) radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers includes extensive measurements to characterize the RF power device by means of the empirical load-pull test setup. This paper presents an alternative characterization approach based on evaluating the load impedances analytically at the desired harmonic frequencies for a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) in terms of the internal and package elements of the active device. It additionally provides a method for extracting the parasitic elements of the power device as well as determining the optimum load-line resistance using the transistor manufacturer’s large signal model. A new topology for the output matching circuit is also proposed with its synthetic procedure to present the appropriate harmonic load impedances. To verify this methodology, a 900 MHz inverse class-F power amplifier circuit was designed and its performance was tested with the aid of the Keysight ADS software. The simulation results showed an output power of 38 dBm, a power gain of about 13 dB, DC-to-RF efficiency greater than 87%, and an acceptable level of linearity for both GSM and CDMA modulated signals.

Regression and Statistical Analysis of Process Parameters on Heat Affected Zone in Electrical Discharge Machining of Tool Steel

Saad K. Shather; Shukry H. Aghdeab; Waqass S. Khudier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 226-231
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168190

The presented study has the aim of finding out the relationships between input variables and process parameters that describe mathematical models, also to estimate the impact of independent parameters on the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). In the presented paper, A2-Tool Steel material is the utilized workpiece material, whereas copper is the electrode material. RSM, which is the abbreviation of Response Surface Methodology, is used for identifying the impact of controllable parameters; such controllable effects consist of pulse current, pulse on time, and pulse off time on HAZ. It has been noticed that model has been developed by RSM adequacy is suitable since the coefficient related to the determination is considered closest to one for HAZ, whereas the highest percentage of error between experimental and predicted data is (-13.829%). From ANOVA, the pulse current has the most significant factor affected on HAZ with 67.219% contribution.

Artificial Intelligent Technique for Power Management Lighting Based on FPGA

Hanan A. R. Akkar; Sameh J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 232-239
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168191

The modern technological advances gave rise to new intelligent ways of performance and management in various fields of our lives. The employment of the artificial intelligent techniques proved influential in enhancing the technological developments and in meeting the demands for new, more efficient, more reliable and faster ways of performing activities and tasks. Lighting systems are an important part of human life. For this reason, it is important to reduce and manage energy consumption properly. Light dimming paves the way for massive energy saving in lighting applications. The options include simply reducing the output during the night and achieve maximum saving with variable dimming. Advantage can be taken of off-peak times (no light needed) to reduce energy consumption significantly. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used as dimming method. The proposed system offers intelligent management of lighting to reduce power consumption, extend lamp life and reduce maintenance. In this work, we will be using multiple sensors such as light dependent resistor (LDR) and Motion Sensor (PIR) for LED dimming system to achieve intelligent LED lighting system to manage energy consumption. The data collected by sensors is processed by Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which is implemented by using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), Spartan 3A starter kit that controls the light intensity of LED from changing the duty cycle of the PWM signals. FPGA was used to implement the design, because of the re-programmability of the FPGAs, which can support the re-configuration necessary to implement the design. VHDL program was used to describe the functions of all necessary components used. Xilinx ISE 14.7 design suite and MATLAB R2012A were used as software tools to perform Spartan 3A starter kit program. The Simulation results were obtained with Xilinx blocks found in MATLAB program.

Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Iraqi Phosphate Ore by Using of Tributyl Phosphate

Muna K. Abbass; Moayyed G. Jalhoom; Aya M. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 240-245
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168192

Iraqi phosphate ore deposits have been ascertained to be the second global reserve after Morocco, it has been utilized successfully at Al-Qaim phosphate fertilizers complex in the period 1983-2009. The deposit has valuable content of rare piles of earth and uranium, which is expected to have a good impact on the Iraqi economy if they are recovered from the ore. In the present study, solvent extraction was employed for the extraction of the rare earth elements (REEs), tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene was utilized for extracting ytterbium, yttrium, erbium, and lanthanum from an aqueous solution made via the nitric acid (HNO3) leaching of the concentrate of the Iraqi apatite ore. In the extraction stage, the effect of the concentration of TBP (1, 2, 3, and 3.5) M, contact time (1, 3,5,7,9, and 11) min, and the phase ratio (organic/aqueous) (1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1/1, 2/1, 3/1, 4/1) were studied. The outcomes manifested, that around 92.9%, 98%, 90.4%, and 98.3% of yttrium, ytterbium, erbium, and lanthanum, respectively were extracted at the best extraction conditions of 3M TBP , 4/1 organic to aqueous phase ratio and 7 min contact time.

Automatic Objects Detection and Tracking Using FPCP, Blob Analysis and Kalman Filter

Hadeel N. Abdullah; Nuha H. Abdulghafoor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 246-254
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168193

Object detection and tracking are key mission in computer visibility applications, including civil or military surveillance systems. However, there are major challenges that have an effective role in the accuracy of detection and tracking such as the ability of the system to track the target and the response speed of the system in different environments as well as the presence of noise in the captured video sequence. In this proposed work, a new algorithm to detect moving objects from video data is designed by the Fast Principle Component Purist (FPCP). Then, we used an ideal filter that performs well to reduce noise through the morphological filter. The Blob analysis is used to add smoothness to the spatial identification of objects and their areas, and finally, the detected object is tracked by Kalman Filter. The applied examples demonstrated the efficiency and capability of the proposed system for noise removal, detection accuracy and tracking.

Detection of Biomedical Images by Using Bio-inspired Artificial Intelligent

Hanan A. R. Akkar; Sameem A. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 255-264
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168194

Computer vision and image processing are extremely necessary for medical pictures analysis. During this paper, a method of Bio-inspired Artificial Intelligent (AI) optimization supported by an artificial neural network (ANN) has been widely used to detect pictures of skin carcinoma. A Moth Flame Optimization (MFO) is utilized to educate the artificial neural network (ANN). A different feature is an extract to train the classifier. The comparison has been formed with the projected sample and two Artificial Intelligent optimizations, primarily based on classifier especially with, ANN-ACO (ANN training with Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)) and ANN-PSO (training ANN with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)). The results were assessed using a variety of overall performance measurements to measure indicators such as Average Rate of Detection (ARD), Average Mean Square error (AMSTR) obtained from training, Average Mean Square error (AMSTE) obtained for testing the trained network, the Average Effective Processing Time (AEPT) in seconds, and the Average Effective Iteration Number (AEIN). Experimental results clearly show the superiority of the proposed (ANN-MFO) model with different features.

Impact of Climate Change on the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Stream Flow and Sediment Yield of Darbandikhan Watershed, Iraq

Mahmoud S. Al- Khafaji; Rana D. Al- Chalabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 265-276
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168195

The impact of climate change on stream flow and sediment yield in Darbandikhan Watershed is an important challenge facing the water resources in Diyala River, Iraq. This impact was investigated using five Global Circulation Models (GCM) based climate change projection models from the A1B scenario of medium emission. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to compute the temporal and spatial distribution of streamflow and sediment yield of the study area for the period 1984 to 2050. The daily-observed flow recorded in Darbandikhan Dam for the period from 1984 to 2013 was used as a base period for future projection. The initial results of SWAT were calibrated and validated using SUFI-2 of the SWAT-CUP program in daily time step considering the values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) coefficient of determination (R2) as a Dual objective function. Results of NSE and R2 during the calibration (validation) periods were equal to 0.61 and 0.62(0.53 and 0.68), respectively. In addition, the average future prediction for the five climate models indicated that the average yearly flow and sediment yield in the watershed would decrease by about 49% and 44%, respectively, until the year 2050 compared with these of the base period from 1984 to 2013. Moreover, spatial analysis shows that 89.6 % and 90 % of stream flow and sediment come from the Iranian part of Darbandikhan watershed while the remaining small percent comes from Iraq, respectively. However, the middle and southern parts of Darbandikhan Watershed contribute by most of the stream flow of the watershed while the parts of lack land cover and steep slopes produce most the sediment.

Geometric Modeling of Compound NURBS Surfaces

Ali K. Alwan; Wisam K. Hamdan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 277-287
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168196

The design of sculptured surfaces occupies an essential area in the field of modern industrial, aerospace, and medical applications. The challenge is to design products that have complex features efficiently with great flexibility of editing in certain regions without affecting other regions, which the designer has no intent to modify. In this paper, we propose a surface design method based on compound NURBS surface to model automotive parts with 400 control points. First, a Non-Uniform B-Spline basis function is derived with a cubic degree and 20 control points. This method is utilized to design car posterior door, car hood, and rear car door as case studies.