Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 38, Issue 5

Volume 38, Issue 5, May 2020, Page 622-800


Analysis and Comparison of DC-DC Boost Converter and Interleaved DC-DC Boost Converter

Karrar S. Faraj; Jasim F. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 622-635
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.291

The step-up converters are widespread use in many applications, including powered vehicles, photovoltaic systems, continuous power supplies, and fuel cell systems. The reliability, quality, maintainability, and reduction in size are the important requirements in the energy conversion process. Interleaving method is one of advisable solution for heavy-performance applications, its harmonious in circuit design by paralleling two or more identical converters. This paper investigates the comparison performance of a two-phase interleaved boost converter with the traditional boost converter. The investigation of validation performance was introduced through steady-state analysis and operation. The operation modes and mathematical analysis are presented. The interleaved boost converter improves low-voltage stress across the switches, low-input current ripple also improving the efficiency compared with a traditional boost converter. To validate the performance in terms of input and output ripple and values, the two converters were tested using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results supported the mathematical analysis. The cancelation of ripple in input and output voltage is significantly detected. The ripple amplitude is reducing in IBC comparing with a traditional boost converter, and the ripple frequency is doubled. This tends to reduce output filter losses, and size.

Effect of Orientation and Pre-Tension on Stresses Distribution on V-Die Bending Processes by Finite Element Method

Adil S. Jabber; Aseel H. Abed; Anwar H. Zabon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 636-648
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.457

Simulation of metal forming processes using the Finite Element Method (FEM) is a well-established procedure, being nowadays possible to develop alternative approaches, such as inverse methodologies, in solving complex problems. This study investigated the effect of orientation and pre-tension on stresses distribution numerically by software ANSYS 19 using the finite element method. The pre-tension is 55% from total strained in each rolling direction. The results show that the orientation has a significant effect on stresses distribution and stress value before and after pre-tension 55%. Although there is a regular distribution of stresses in three direction, but there is significant difference in the values of stresses in each of (0, 45, 90) degrees. The highest value of t rolling direction. The pre-tension has a greater impact on stresses distribution and stress value. Although, there is a regular distribution of stresses in blank before and after pre-tension, but there is significant difference in the values. Where in 0 degree on rolling direction the stresses increased by 31.7% from their values before pre-tension, while in 45 degrees on rolling direction the stresses increased by 35.6% and in 90 degrees on rolling direction the stresses increased by 23.6% from their values before pre-tension.

Fabrication of Ni-ZrO2 Nanocomposite Coating by Electroless Deposition Technique

Hiba M. Algailani; Adel K. Mahmoud; Hanna A Al-Kaisy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 649-655
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.491

This work aims preparation of Ni-based nanocomposite coating by electroless deposition method onto stainless steel (316L) substrate, the present work will compare the effects of incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles at different percentages (1.25 wt %, 2.25 wt %, and 4.25 wt %) Ni-based electroless deposition coating of the bath nanocomposite on the phase structure, microhardness, and corrosion resistance is studied. Where the structure and chemical composition of nanocomposite coatings were studied by using (X-ray), (SEM) and (EDS). of Ni - ZrO2 nanocomposite coating exhibits much-increased microhardness and remarkably improved corrosion resistance

A Novel Application for Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Based on Helical Receiver Tube and Nano-Fluid with a Solar Tracking Mechanism

Saad T. Hamidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 656-668
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.496

Novel techniques to enhance thermal performance using a helical coil receiver tube and Nano-fluid materials are presented in this paper. Two different applied techniques to enhance thermal performance are used as a new application on parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). In the present work, PTSC has been fabricated using Dioxide Silicon SiO2 with an average particle size of 40nm by taking volume fraction of SiO2 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%. Distilled water based Nano-fluid as a working fluid and a helical coil receiver tube were used in this paper. Varying the flow rate of Nano-fluids 100,150 and 200l/h are used, respectively. A solar tracking mechanism experimentally has been used with the PTSC. As per ASHRAE standard, the experimental results showed that at volume fraction 0.3 % and flow rate of 200 l/h, the highest increase in the energy absorbed factor FR(τα) was 14.6 % and energy removal factor FRUL was 29.4 % compared with distilled water. The changes in FR(τα) vary from 11.8% to 14.6% while in FRUL, they vary from 20.5% to 29.4% as compared with the distilled water case. The maximum efficiency was about 76.6 % as the heat loss parameter [(Ti–Ta)/GT] =0 at a volume fraction of 0.3 % and the flow rate of 200 l/h.

Flexural Performance of Reinforced Concrete Built-up Beams with SIFCON

Ghazwan K. Mohammed; Kaiss F. Sarsam; Ikbal N. Gorgis

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 669-680
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.501

The study deals with the effect of using Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) with the reinforced concrete beams to explore its enhancement to the flexural capacity. The experimental work consists of the casting of six beams, two beams were fully cast by conventional concrete (CC) and SIFCON, as references. While the remaining was made by contributing a layer of SIFCON diverse in-depth and position, towards complete the overall depths of the built-up beam with conventional concrete CC. Also, an investigation was done through the control specimens testing about the mechanical properties of SIFCON. The results showed a stiffer behavior with a significant increase in load-carrying capacity when SIFCON used in tension zones. Otherwise high ductility and energy dissipation appeared when SIFCON placed in compression zones with a slight increment in ultimate load. The high volumetric ratio of steel fibers enabled SIFCON to magnificent tensile properties.

Vision Improvement Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles-Doped PMMA for Contact Lenses

Lina M. Shaker; Ali H. Al-Hamdani; Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 681-689
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.327

Polymer-based nanocomposites exhibit various optical virtues such as a high refractive index (RI), the dispersion index (Abbe number (νd)) and visible light transmittance (T %) about 95-99%. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) is suggested as a good candidate to rise the RI and maintain high transparency when it is integrated with Poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer PMMA because TiO2 NPs have a high RI (2.45 and 2.7 for anatase and rutile phase, respectively). The ocular performance was evaluated by modulation transfer function (MTF) and image simulation. The used criteria show that the best visual performance is obtained when TiO2-PMMA-CL of 0.1 wt/volume of TiO2 NPs is used (P < 0.0001) which reduced the generated spherical and chromatic aberrations inside the eye

Study of Power System Load Flow Using FPGA and LabVIEW

Ahmed Y. Yaseen; Afaneen A. Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 690-697
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.346

The capability to rapidly execute the power flow (PF) calculations permit engineers in assured with stay bigger assured within the dependability, protection, and economical operation of their system within the case of planned or unplanned instrumentality failures. The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of FPGA characteristics to speed up power flow computing time for the on-line monitoring system of a power system. The work comprises which is the development of the Power flow program using the Fast-decoupled method based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), and LABVIEW (graphical programming environment). The program delivered very satisfactory results to solve a 30-bus test system. These findings suggest that in general that differences between the proposed work and the conventional fast decoupled method are satisfactory. As for the execution time, because the FPGA uses parallel solutions, the performance of the proposed method is faster. Also, the engagement of the FPGA and the LabVIEW program presented an effective monitoring system for observing the power system.a

Influence of Fly Ash Addition on Behavior of Soft Clayey Soil

Hussein H. Karim; Zeena W. Samueel; Adel H. Jassem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 698-706
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.426

This paper investigates the impact of the fly Ash addition on the Geotechnical properties of soft soil as well as chooses the optimum percentage added of fly ash. To understand the behavior of fly ash mixed with soil, a number of laboratory experiments testing conducted on clayey soil-fly ash mixture in several percentages (5,10,15,20,25, and 30%) as Atterberg test, Specific gravity test, compaction test, California Bearing Ratio (C.B.R) Test, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) Test, Consolidation Test. Test results indicate rising in plastic limit and liquid limit as fly ash adding. Specific gravity decreased essentially by adding fly ash. Whereas there was falling on the Dry unit weight value with the contract to the decreasing in the water content. The CBR and UCS values were increased with increasing fly ash content. 20% was the optimum fly Ash content. This study also benefits the effective use of fly ash and thus a cost-effective method for improving the soil properties.

Pose Estimation of Objects Using Digital Image Processing for Pick-and-Place Applications of Robotic Arms

Firas S. Hameed; Hasan M. Alwan; Qasim A. Ateia

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 707-718
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.518

Robot Vision is one of the most important applications in Image processing. Visual interaction with the environment is a much better way for the robot to gather information and react more intelligently to the variations of the parameters in that environment. A common example of an application that depends on robot vision is that of Pick-And-Place objects by a robotic arm. This work presents a method for identifying an object in a scene and determines its orientation. The method presented enables the robot to choose the best-suited pair of points on the object at which the two-finger gripper can successfully pick the object. The scene is taken by a camera attached to the arm’s end effector which gives 2D images for analysis. The edge detection operation was used to extract a 2D edge image for all the objects in the scene to reduce the time needed for processing. The methods proposed showed accurate object identification which enabled the robotic to successfully identify and pick an object of interest in the scene

Extract the Similar Images Using the Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and the Hu Invariants Moments

Beshaier A. Abdulla; Yossra H. Ali; Nuha J. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 719-727
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.519

In the last years, many types of research have introduced different methods and techniques for a correct and reliable image retrieval system. The goal of this paper is a comparison study between two different methods which are the Grey level co-occurrence matrix and the Hu invariants moments, and this study is done by building up an image retrieval system employing each method separately and comparing between the results. The Euclidian distance measure is used to compute the similarity between the query image and database images. Both systems are evaluated according to the measures that are used in detection, description, and matching fields which are precision, recall, and accuracy, and addition to that mean square error (MSE) and structural similarity index (SSIM) is used. And as it shows from the results the Grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) had outstanding and better results from the Hu invariants moment method.

Utilization of Mineral Sequestration for CO2 Capturing in Car Parks and Tunnels

Aymen J. Alsaad; Tareq S. Al-Attar; Basil S. Al-Shathr

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 728-737
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.594

Decreasing the emissions of CO2 that come from vehicle exhaust, especially in car parking and tunnels, is so vital. CO2 emissions cause corrosion to a reinforcement of concrete. Thus, there is a need to provide a layer that protects the reinforcement from the reach of this harmful gas. This work goals to investigate the efficiency of using board units from Pozzolime concrete and pervious concrete to sequestrate CO2 from the environment and then to convert it into calcium carbonate inside the concrete. The units have dimensions of (200×400×40±5). All specimens were cured in a water tank after about 48 hours after casting. Then paint the sample from all surfaces (three layers) excluding the top surface. The pervious concrete and Pozzolime specimens, at age of 28 days, were put in the chamber, then the gas was supplied to the chamber with concentrations of 15%, 25%, and 50 %, for 24 hours. The efficiency was evaluated through carbonation depth, CO2-uptake, and weight change. The results showed that the maximum CO2 uptake was recorded at the age of 28 days for Pozzolime concrete when exposed to 50% of CO2 concentration

Velocity Kinematics Analysis and Trajectory Planning of 5 DOF Robotic Arm

Tahseen Abaas; Ali A. Khleif; Mohanad Q. Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 738-747
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.888

Trajectory planning is important in robots to achieve smooth path planning. This paper presents the velocity kinematics analysis and trajectory planning of a 5 DOF robotic arm. The Jacobian matrix is utilized to analyze the velocity kinematics and the third-order polynomial equation is used to determine the path of angle, velocity, and acceleration of the robotic arm. A 5 DOF robotic arm used with revolute joints and the motion of it is performed using the Arduino Mega2560 (microcontroller) which controlling on servo motors. The results of the velocity kinematics indicated the maximum linear velocity occurs with the z-direction and the cubic polynomial equation satisfied a smooth path for angle and velocity but a discontinuous path for acceleration

Performance Improvement of a Conventional Hydraulic Elevator by Using Electro-Hydraulic Servo Mechanism

Jamal AK. Mohammed; Walaa M. Hashim; Bahaa S. Beram

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 748-760
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.367

An electro-hydraulic elevator is a new type of enhanced elevators that are used in low-rise buildings that do not exceed more than three floors. In this paper, an electro-hydraulic servo system for controlling the speed of a hydraulic elevator prototype by using a proportional valve and PID controller was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A three floors elevator prototype model with 76cm height was built including hydraulics components and electrical components. The elevator system is fully automated using the Arduino UNO board based Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. LabVIEW software is used to control the hydraulic elevator system through L298 DC drive via the DAQ board. The best PID gains was obtained experimentally. The elevator system prototype could be emplimented for educational purposes; such as learning the undergraduate students in the Electromechanical Engineering Department in the University of Technology how to structuring the electro-hydraulic elevator as well as the appropriate control strategy.

Effect of Different Laser Welding Parameter on Welding Strength in Polymer Transmission Welding Using Semiconductor

Farah M. Shaker; Mohanned M. AL-Khafaji; Kadhim A. Hubeatir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 761-768
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.368

In this work, the diode laser (810μm wavelength) was used for laser transmission welding application on PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate). The welding was done between opaqueness and transparent with thickness 2 mm and 2.57 mm, respectively. The effects of different process parameters, laser speed, spot size and force with different values (5, 15, 20 mm/min), (2, 2.5, 3mm) and (2, 6, 10 N) respectively were used to study their effect on weld width and strength. L9 Taguchi orthogonal array has been used to design the experiments and optimize the result. The result of the signal to noise ratio shows that, the width of welding decrease with increasing both the welding speed and the spot size while it was increased with increasing the force on the sample. The narrower width observed at speed (20mm/min), spot size (3mm), and force (2N). Also, the best strength was found at speed (15 mm/min), spot size (2.5mm), and force (10N).

Arabic Speaker Identification System Using Multi Features

Rawia A. Mohammed; Nidaa F. Hassan; Akbas E. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 769-778
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.408

The performance regarding the Speaker Identification Systems (SIS) has enhanced because of the current developments in speech processing methods, however, an improvement is still required with regard to text-independent speaker identification in the Arabic language. In spite of tremendous progress in applied technology for SIS, it is limited to English and some other languages. This paper aims to design an efficient SIS (text-independent) for the Arabic language. The proposed system uses speech signal features for speaker identification purposes, and it includes two phases: The first phase is training, in this phase a corpus of reference database is built which will serve as a reference for comparing and identifying the speaker for the second phase. The second phase is testing, which searches the identification of the speaker. In this system, the features will be extracted according to: Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC), mathematical calculations of voice frequency and voice fundamental frequency. Machine learning classification techniques: K-nearest neighbors, Sequential Minimum Optimization and Logistic Model Tree are used in the classification process. The best classification technique is a K-nearest neighbors, where it gives higher precision 94.8%.

Engine Performance with Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Fuel and Emission Characteristics

Marwa N. Kareem; Adel Mahmood Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 779-788
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.419

In this study, the sunflowers oil was utilized as for producing biodiesel via a chemical operation, which is called trans-esterification reaction. Iraqi diesel fuel suffers from high sulfur content, which makes it one of the worst fuels in the world. This study is an attempt to improve the fuel specifications by reducing the sulfur content of the addition of biodiesel fuel to diesel where this fuel is free of sulfur and has a thermal energy that approaches to diesel.20%, 30% and 50% of Biodiesel fuel were added to the conventional diesel. Performance tests and pollutants of a four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine were performed. The results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency a decreased by (4%, 16%, and 22%) for the B20, B30 and B50, respectively. The increase in specific fuel consumption was (60%, 33%, and 11%) for the B50, B30, and B20 fuels, respectively for the used fuel blends compared to neat diesel fuel. The engine exhaust gas emissions measures manifested a decreased of CO and HC were CO decreased by (13%), (39%) and (52%), and the HC emissions were lower by (6.3%), (32%), and (46%) for B20, B30 and B50 respectively, compared to diesel fuel. The reduction of exhaust gas temperature was (7%), (14%), and (32%) for B20, B30 and B50 respectively. The NOx emission increased with the increase in biodiesel blends ratio. For B50, the raise was (29.5%) in comparison with diesel fuel while for B30 and B20, the raise in the emissions of NOx was (18%) and (3%), respectively

Effect of Modified Asphalt Cement of the Performance of Stone Matrix Mixtures

Duaa A. Khalaf; Zaynab I. Qasim; Karim H. Al Helo

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 789-800
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.489

This research investigates the behavior of Stone Matrix Asphalt mixtures (SMA) modified with styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer at four percentages (1, 2, 3 and 4%) by weight of asphalt cement. The moisture susceptibility and rutting were taken into consideration in this study. To achieve the objective of this research the superpave system is conducted to design the asphalt mixtures. The physical properties of aggregate, bitumen and other mix materials were assessed and evaluated with the laboratory tests. The mixtures were prepared using penetration Graded (40-50) bitumen and a chemical named Polypropylene Fibers was used as a stabilizing additive. Fibers have been used in SMA mixtures for two main reasons: To increase the toughness and fracture resistance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) and to act as a stabilizer to prevent drain down of the asphalt binder. The laboratory tests include indirect tensile strength test, Marshall stability and retained Marshall Stability test (RMS). For rutting test the Roller wheel compactor is used for preparing the asphaltic samples and Wheel tracking device is used to evaluate the rutting of asphaltic slabs. The results showed that the SBS polymer asphalt mixture gave better moisture sensitivity and better fracture resistance according to the study.It is noted that indirect tensile strength ratio (TSR) increases by 93.1 % and the rut depth decreases by 32.5 % when adding 3% SBS polymer to SMA