Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 38, Issue 6

Volume 38, Issue 6, June 2020, Page 801-950


Behavior of Cohesive Soil Reinforced by Polypropylene Fiber

Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Falah Hasan Raheel; Yassein H. Al-Ani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 801-812
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.109

For any land-based structure, the foundation is very important and has to be strong to support the entire structure. In order for the foundation to be strong, the soil underneath it plays a very critical role. Some projects where the soil compacted by modifying energy is insufficient to achieve the required results, so the additives as a kind of installation and reinforcement are used to achieve the required improvement. This study introduces an attempt to improve cohesive soil by using Polypropylene Fiber instead of conventional kinds used in soil stabilization. Three different percentages (0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75% by dry weight of soil) and lengths (6, 12, and 18) mm of fiber are mixed with cohesive as a trial to enhance some properties of clay. The results of soil samples prepared at a dry density at three different water conditions (optimum water content, dry side, and wet side) showed that the increase of the percentage and length of polypropylene fiber causes a reduction in the maximum dry density of soils. Soil cohesion increases with the increase of PPF up to 0.5% then decreased. The length of Polypropylene fiber has a great effect on the cohesion of soil and adding 0.5% Polypropylene fibers with a length of 18mm to the soils consider the optimum mix for design purposes to improve the soil. Finally, the soil reinforced by PPF exhibits a reduction in the values of the compression ratio (CR) and accelerates the consolidation of the soil.

Research Paper

Correlation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Index and Geotechnical Properties for Baghdad City, Iraq

Hussein H. Karim; Zena W. Samueel; Dalia A. Abdul Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 813-824
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.189

This paper comprises the study and analysis of Baghdad soil for eight geotechnical properties, which extract from field experiments of 630 boreholes with depth taken to 30m and representing 200 sites. Soil investigation reports are composed from altered laboratory tests. The soil layers. Divided into each 2m, which means 15 studied’ layers and soil properties values were embraced and submitted. in tables and charts which have been analysis-using excel2013 and check the charts using curve expert program to get the relationships between the properties values and the factor of safety against liquefaction. The correlations between liquefaction potential represented by the safety factor and soil properties for the available data of 200 sites in Baghdad have been studied and statistically studied ‘to evaluate both of soil properties and liquefaction potential index. Eight factors affecting liquefaction have been correlated with factor of safety for all earthquake magnitudes (ML= 4to 6.5 with 0.5 interval). These factors are, groundwater table, fill layer depth, standard penetration test (SPT- N value), saturated unit’ weight (γ), Relative density (Dr %), soil fractions (clay, silt and sand %), and total settlement (Stot). For better correlations, the same factors have been correlated with safety factor but for each earthquake magnitude alone.

Investigation of New IPM Linear Machine Configuration with Low Permanent Magnet Used

Ahlam L. Shuraiji; Nattapong Pothi; Hashmia Sh. Dakeel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 825-831
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.354

Permanent magnet (PM) machines have received numerous attentions, since they are distinguished by many desirable features including simple construction and high efficiency. However, high price of the permanent magnet material may be considered as the main problems of such machines. Hence, the demand of PM machine with high efficient PM materials used is increased. In this study a new configuration of PM linear machine with high efficient PM material utilization, named as V-shape interior PM linear machine is investigated. The mentioned machine has been compared to the conventional I-shape counterpart. In order to perform sensible comparison, I-shape and V-shape machines have been designed with identical main design specifications. It has been observed that the V-shape topology shows better PM material utilization. It should be noted that about 43% higher efficient PM used is obtained by the V-shape machine compared to the conventional I-shape corresponding. It should be noted that the V-shape machine has been designed with about 51.6% less total permanent magnet volume compared to I-shape machine. Moreover, the introduced machine offers less cogging force as well as thrust force ripple than that of the conventional machine.

An Efficient Approach for Detecting and Classifying Moving Vehicles in a Video Based Monitoring System

Sajidah S. Mahmood; Laith J. Saud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 832-845
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.438

Moving objects detection, type recognition, and traffic analysis in video-based surveillance systems is an active area of research which has many applications in road traffic monitoring. This paper is on using classical approaches of image processing to develop an efficient algorithm for computer vision based on traffic surveillance system that can detect and classify moving vehicles, besides serving some other traffic analysis issues like finding vehicles speed and heading, tracking specified vehicles, and finding traffic load. The algorithm is designed to be flexible for modification to fulfill the changes in design objectives, having limited computation time, giving good accuracy, and serves inexpensive implementation. A 92% of success is achieved for the considered test, with the missed cases being abnormal that are not defined to the algorithm. The computation time, with a platform (hardware and software) dependent, the algorithm took to produce results was parts of milliseconds. A CNN based deep learning classifier was built and evaluated to judge the feasibility of involving a modern approach in the design for the targeted aims in this work. The modern NN based deep learning approach is very powerful and represents the choice for many very sophisticated applications, but when the purpose is restricted to limited requirements, as it is believed the case is here, the reason will be to use the classical image processing procedures. In making choice, it is important to consider, among many things, accuracy, computation time, and simplicity of design, development, and implementation.

Studying Wear Behavior of Ni-Ti- Ag Shape Memory Alloy Synthesized by P/T

Suad A. Shihab; Khansaa D. Salman; Laith J. Saud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 846-853
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.463

Because of the unique properties, Ni-Ti based shape memory alloys (SMAs) are increasingly attractive for a wide variety of engineering applications such as actuators, biomedical, or robot coupling. In this work, a third alloying element, namely nanoparticles of Ag (which is insoluble in Ni-Ti matrix), is added by powder technology to the Ni-Ti alloy to produce a Ni-Ti-Ag alloy. The Nanoparticles of the Ag element are added at 3, 5, 7, and 10 wt. % to produce four alloy specimens with different mixtures .The mixing process was done by a horizontal mixer for 120 min with a speed of 350 rpm, and then the mixture was compacted by using a compacting pressure of 600 MPa. Afterward, the compacted specimens were sintered at 600 /min for 6 hrs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the microstructure and phases of the products. DSC examination was used to characterize the phase transformation temperatures in heating and cooling. Wear behavior was defined by using the pin-on-disc technique, and the hardness of the samples was calculated using Vickers's hardness apparatus. The results of this work showed that the nano-Ag added at 7 and 10 wt. % were distributed homogeneously in the Ni-Ti matrix, and that Ag slightly decreased hardness and increased the wear rate. The value of shape memory effect (SME) for the produced alloy was about 89.9% and the phase transformation in heating was at a temperature of about 186.48 and in cooling of about 140.3 for the specimen that contains 10 wt.% Ag nanoparticles.

Effect of Wire Diameter, Feeding Rate, Pulse (on/off) Time on Surface Roughness and Metal Removal Rate for Cr-Mo Steel (SCM425H) During Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (WEDM) Cutting Operation

Saad K. Shather; Sami A. Hammood; Noor Al-Huda A. Hussain; Noor H. Hasson

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 854-860
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.524

Increase the demand to produce complex shapes with high quality and dimensional accuracy such as production aerospace, cars, die sinking has been leading to increase the demand to use the non- traditional cutting operations such as wire electro-discharge machine (WEDM) rather than using the traditional operations. An idea to understand the effect of wire diameter, wire feed, pulsing (on/off) time on surface roughness, and metal removal rate of Cr-Mo steel during wire electrical discharge machining was investigated. Two Steel alloy samples with dimensions of (60 x50 x 20)mm were cut into four rectangular spaces with (5x10x20)mm at one side of each sample using wire cut (EDM) machine with a wire diameter of 0.25 mm and feeding rate 2 m/min for sample 1 and a 0.3 mm diameter and 3 m/min feeding rate for sample 2. Pulse (on, off) time was (110, 50), (112, 52), (115, 55), (116, 57) corresponds to space 1, space 2, space 3, and space 4 in both steel block. Surface roughness and metal removal rate measurements were estimated. The results showed that wire diameter, feeding rate, and pulse (on, off) time is proportional with metal removal rate, while reversed with surface roughness. The wire diameter of 0.3 mm and a feeding rate of 3m/min enhanced better surface quality and productivity. Pulse (on, off) time is the most effective parameter. Best duration time was recorded at the values (116, 57)

Variation of Matric Suction as a Function of Gypseous Soil Dry Density

Hussein H. Karim; Qasim A. Al-Obaidi; Ali A. Al-Shamoosi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 861-868
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.550

Gypseous soil is one of the most problematic types of collapsible soils which is affected by many geotechnical factors. The most important factors are the effect of loading and wetting and their relation to soil density, especially when the soil at unsaturation condition. Suction pressure is the main criteria in determining the deformation behaviour of unsaturated collapsible soil when these soils distributed in arid or semi-arid region. In this study, disturbed sample of sandy soil of more than 70% gypsum content is taken from Al-Ramadi city western of Iraq. This study interested to investigate the variation of matric suction with the dry density and their effects on deformation of gypseous soil. For this purpose, a soil-model device provided with high accurate Tensiometers and Time Domain Reflectometry sensors in addition to data logger is designed and manufactured. Tensiometer sensor is used to monitor and measure the matric suction, while the Time Domain Reflectometry is used to monitor and measure the volumetric water content in the soil mass. The results of the tests showed that there is a significant effect of soil dry density on the relationship between the matric suction and water content.

A Study on the Behavior of Composite Concrete and Open Web Steel Joists

Marwah S. Abduljabbar; Wael S. Baldawi; Mohammed J. Hamood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 869-878
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.575

In this research, the results of three composite open web steel joist static tests are presented along with the results of companion pushout tests. The effect of shear connection degree and span-to-depth ratio on the behavior of composite open web joists under distributed static loading is reviewed and discussed, followed by a comparison of results of the shear stud strength from push-out tests, back-calculated from the ultimate capacity of the composite joist tests, and to the provisions in the AISC, EC4, NZS, SJI, and BS5950. Specimen test results of the studied span-to-depth ratios showed that the load-deflection behavior was similar to ultimate capacity difference less than 10%, but they experienced different failure modes and deflection. And when the test results were compared based on the shear connection degree, they revealed that the composite open web joist designed with partial shear connection suffered from severe deformation and deflection accompanied with higher ultimate capacity.

Properties of Self-Compacting Cementitious Composite Materials Containing Cement Kiln Dust Powder

Ahmed S. Kadhim; Alaa A. Atiyah; Shakir A. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 879-886
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.592

This paper aims to investigate the influence of utilization micro cement kiln dust as a sustainable materials additive in order to reduce the voids and micro cracks in the cementitious mortar materials which cause a drastic reduction in the load carrying capacity of the element. Its therefore very important to decrease the pores and enhance the mechanical strength of the cementitious composite materials. In this article, the properties of self-compacting mortar containing micro cement dust additive was experimentally assessed. Micro cement dust powder was added to the self-compacting mortar in (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 %) percentage by weight of cement to be used as cementitious sustainable materials. The experimental results indicated that the modification and enhancement of the workability of fresh mixture and the mechanical strengths of self-compacting mortar were increased as micro cement dust additives increases. Also; the water absorption and total porosity were decreased with increases of micro cement dust powder.

Prediction the Influence of Machining Parameters for CNC Turning of Aluminum Alloy Using RSM and ANN

Hind H. Abdulridha; Aseel J. Helael; Ahmed A. Al-duroobi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 887-895
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.705

The main objective of this paper is to develop a prediction model using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the turning process of Aluminum alloy 6061 round rod. The turning experiments carried out based on the Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology. The influence of three independent variables such as Cutting speed (150, 175 and 200 mm/ min), depth of cut (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm) and feed rate (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm/rev) on the Surface Roughness (Ra) were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The response graphs from the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) present that feed-rate has the strongest influence on Ra dependent on cutting speed and depth of cut. Surface response methodology developed between the machining parameters and response and confirmation experiments reveals that the good agreement with the regression models. The coefficient of determination value for RSM model is found to be high (R2 = 0.961). It indicates the goodness of fit for the model and high significance of the model. From the result, the maximum error between the experimental value and ANN model is less than the RSM model significantly. However, if the test patterns number will be increased then this error can be further minimized. The proposed RSM and ANN prediction model sufficiently predict Ra accurately. However, ANN prediction model is found to be better compared to RSM model. The artificial neutral network is applied to experimental results to find prediction results for two response parameters. The predicted results taken from ANN show a good agreement between experimental and predicted values with the mean squared error of training indices equal to (0.000) which produces flexibility to the manufacturing industries to select the best setting based on applications.

Hydrological Model for Derbendi-Khan Dam Reservoir Watershed Using SWAT Model

Thair S. Khayyun; Imzahim Abdulkareem; Ali M. Hayder

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 896-909
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.890

In this study, the watershed’s runoff of Derbendi-Khan dam reservoir within the upper part of Diyala River reach the northeast of Iraq was modeled by Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model calibration and validation were based on monthly measured inflow to the dam reservoir. They extended for a period between 1979 and 2008 with a warm-up period of two years, twenty-year for calibration, and eight-year for validation. Sequential Uncertainty Fitting version 2 (SUFI2) automatic calibration algorithm method used for model calibration and sensitivity analysis. Results demonstrate that the model performance for the studied watershed which is evaluated, with many statistical criteria, was very good. The sensitivity analysis pointed parameters (CH_K2, CN2 ALPHA_BF, SFTMP, SOL_AWC, and CH_N2) are the most useful parameters on runoff calibration for the studied watershed. Moreover, it was found that the average annual areal snowmelt ratio to the average annual areal precipitation during the simulation period is approximately 24%.

Process Capability Analysis to Assess Capacity of a Cleaning Liquid Product with Asymmetric Tolerances

Sohaib Khlil; Huthaifa Al-Khazraji; Zina Alabacy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 910-916
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.905

Process capability indices are a powerful tool used by quality control engineering to measure the degree to which the process is or is not meeting the requirements. This paper studies the application of process capability indices in the evaluation of a process with asymmetric tolerances. The analyzed collected data of the cleaning liquid “Zahi”, was used to investigate the ability of the filling process to meet the requested specifications. Matlab software was used to plot ̅ ̅ control charts, normal probability, and histogram of the data gathered from the production line and further performed statistical calculations. It was observed from the control charts that the filling process is under control. In addition, it was revealed by the process capability indices that the process of filling the cleaning liquid bottle is not fitted with the target value but it is adequate.

Point Clouds Pre-Processing and Surface Reconstruction Based on Tangent Continuity Algorithm Technique

Ali M. Al-Bdairy; Ahmed A. A. Al-Duroobi; Maan Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 917-925
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.1612

Pre-processing is essential for processing the row data point clouds which acquired using a 3D laser scanner as a modern technique to digitize and reconstruct the surface of the 3D objects in reverse engineering applications. Due to the accuracy limitation of some 3D scanners and the environmental noise factors such as illumination and reflection, there are some noised data points associated with the row point clouds, so, in the present paper, a preprocessing algorithm has been proposed to determine and delete the unnecessary data as noised points and save the remaining data points for the surface reconstruction of 3D objects from its point clouds which acquired using the 3D laser scanner (Matter and Form). The proposed algorithm based on the assessment of tangent continuity as a geometrical feature and criteria for the contiguous points. A MATLAB software has been used to construct a program for the proposed point clouds pre-processing algorithm, the validity of the constructed program has been proved using geometrical case studies with different shapes. The application results of the proposed tangent algorithm and surface fitting process for the suggested case studies were proved the validity of the proposed algorithm for simplification of the point clouds, where the percent of noised data which removed according to the proposed tangent continuity algorithm which achieved a reduction of the total points to a percentage of (43.63%), and (32.01%) for the studied case studies, from the total number of data points in point cloud for first and second case study respectively.

Hand Gesture Recognition of Static Letters American Sign Language (ASL) Using Deep Learning

Abdulwahab A. Abdulhussein; Firas A. Raheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 926-937
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.533

An American Sign Language (ASL) is a complex language. It is depending on the special gesture stander of marks. These marks are represented by hands with assistance by facial expression and body posture. ASL is the main communication language of deaf and people who have hard hearing from North America and other parts of the world. In this paper, Gesture recognition is proposed of static ASL using Deep Learning. The contribution consists of two solutions to the problem. The first one is resized with Bicubic static ASL binary images. Besides that, good recognition results in of detection the boundary hand using the Robert edge detection method. The second solution is to classify the 24 alphabets static characters of ASL using Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and Deep Learning. The classification accuracy equals to 99.3 % and the error of loss function is 0.0002. According to 36 minutes with 15 seconds of elapsed time result and 100 iterations. The training is fast and gives the very good results, in comparison with other related works of CNN, SVM, and ANN for training

A Comparative Study of Various Intelligent Controllers’ Performance for Systems Based on Bat Optimization Algorithm

Luay T. Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 938-950
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i6A.622

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of two intelligent controllers; the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, and the proportional-integral-derivative-acceleration (PIDA) controller, based on optimization algorithm for higher order systems. In this work, bat control algorithm has been utilized to find and tune the optimal weight parameters of the controllers as simple and fast tuning technique to find the best unsaturated state and smooth control action for the systems based on the intelligent controllers. The simulation results using (Matlab Package) show that both controllers with the bat control algorithm can give excellent performance but the performance of the PIDA controller is better than that of the PID controller in terms of reducing the rising time (Tr), peak time (Tp), settling time (Ts), maximum overshoot (Mp), and steady-state error (Ess). Furthermore, the fitness evaluation value is reduced.