Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 38, Issue 8

Volume 38, Issue 8, August 2020, Page 1096-1245

Research Paper

Mechanical Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel (AISI420) Subjected to Conventional and Cryogenic Treatments

Hareer S. Mohamed; Ali H. Ataiwi; Jamal J. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1096-1105
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.517

Martensitic Stainless Steel (AISI420) MSS are vastly used because of their properties conventional which mix good mechanical and corrosion resistance. Cryogenic up to -196°C for different soaking time and heat treatments at (1000,500,200°C) for 15 minutes is one of the ways that used to enhance mechanical properties of these steels by means transformation of retained austenite, deformation regarding martensite then carbide refinement. the result showed an increase in tensile strength of samples that were treated cryogenically and tempered at 500°C was 933 (MPa) compared to samples that just treated conventionally in austenitizing and tempering at the same temperature that was 880 (MPa). The hardness values increased considerably to 414HV and 321 HV for the specimen that tempered at 200°C and 500°C respectively, precipitation of small carbides was observed that this is responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties of the material.

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Finite Element Modeling in Friction Stir Welding of C12200 Copper Alloy to C36000 High-Leaded Brass Pipe

Ahmed A. Akber; Ali A. Khleif; Abbas N. Hasein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1106-1116
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.602

In systems transporting fluids like petrol, water, or any fluids. Copper and brass pipes are used because of the capability to resist corrosion. The copper alloys can be welded by several methods like arc, resistance, friction welding, and gas methods and they can be readily soldered and brazed. In the present study, mechanical properties and finite element modeling evaluation for friction stir welding of two dissimilar pipes (C12200 copper alloy pipe with C36000 copper alloy pipe). During this study six parameters were used where rotation speed of (775,1000,1300 and1525rpm), welding speed of 1.7 mm/min, axial force of 8.5KN, with a CW direction of rotation, and zero degree of tilt angle, using a threaded cone geometry of the tool. The results showed that the best weld quality was in case when the speed of rotation was 1525 rpm

Preparation and Study of Flexural Strength and Impact Strength for Hybrid Composite Materials used in Structural Applications

Teeb A. Mohameed; Sihama I. Salih; Wafaa M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1117-1125
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.655

Many of the polymeric materials used for structural purposes have weak mechanical properties, these characteristics can therefore be improved by preparing a hybrid laminar composite. In this work use melting mixing method using screw extruder to prepare sheets of polymer blends and nanocomposites based on polymer blends, and using a hot hydraulic press machine to prepared hybrid laminates composites. Two groups of hybrid laminar composites were prepared, the first group is consist of [((94%PP: 5%PMMA: 1 %( PP-g-MA)): 0.3% ZrO2): 6%KF and 8%KF] and the second group is [((94%PP: 5%UHMWPE: 1 %( PP-g-MA)): 0.3% ZrO2): 6%KF and 8%KF]. The results illustrated the impact strength and fracture toughness are increase with increased weight percentage of Kevlar fiber in for both groups of laminar composites and the highest values for two groups are (58.1, 54.95 KJ/M2) and (8.4, 9.16 MPa√m) respectively, any that, at the rate of increment reached to (120.4%, 107%) and (52.7%, 66.5%) respectively, compared with the neat PP. Moreover, the flexural strength values of the first group samples of hybrid laminar composite remained constant, when added kevlar fiber to nanocomposite. While, the flexural strength values of the second group samples of hybrid laminar composite increase with increase the ratio of kevlar fiber in composite to reach the maximum values (92 MPa) at 8% wt. of kevlar fiber, any, at the rate of increment reached to 39.4% compared with the neat PP. As well as, the results shown that the flexural properties and fracture toughness of the second group samples higher than they are for the first group samples

Influence of Nanocermic on Some Properties of Polyetheretherketone Based Biocomposites

Alaa A. Mohammed; Jawad K. Oleiwi; Emad S. Al-Hassani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1126-1136
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.703

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) materials belong to a group of high-performance thermoplastic polymers thermoplastic that has been proposed as a substitute for metals in biomaterials. In this research, in order to improve the performances of PEEK, nano titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) and nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) were incorporated into PEEK loading up to (1.5 wt%) to fabricate PEEK composites by using a method of melt-blending and hot compressing. Properties, such as compression, density, the morphology of fracture, and element analysis were examined for preparing samples. The results showed that the compression and density properties improved with increased weight fraction for two types of reinforcement, but the higher values obtained at (1.5 wt%) for two types of powders. It was found the higher compression strength and compression modulus obtained when reinforced with (1.5% n-HAp) which equal to (107.632 MPa and 3.991 GPa) respectively, than for samples reinforced with (1.5% n-TiO2) which equal to (91.579 MPa and 3.123GPa) respectively, while the density results have opposite behavior, it was found the higher values obtained when reinforced with (n-TiO2) than for samples reinforced with (n-HAp) and at (1.5% n-TiO2) the higher density, which equal to (1.3656) while at (1.5% n-HAp) which equal to (1.3425). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) manifested, that the fracture morphology transferred from brittle to ductile when reinforced with nano particles. Also, EDS analysis elucidated an identically uniform distribution of n-TiO2 and n-HAp

Improve the Micro-hardness of Single Point Incremental Forming Product Using Magnetic Abrasive Finishing

Baqer A. Ahmed; Saad K. Shather; Wisam K. Hamdan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1137-1142
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.906

In this paper the Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) was utilized after Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) process as a combined finishing process. Firstly, the Single Point Incremental forming was form the truncated cone made from low carbon steel (1008-AISI) based on Z-level tool path then the magnetic abrasive finishing process was applied on the surface of the formed product. Box-Behnken design of experiment in Minitab 17 software was used in this study. The influences of different parameters (feed rate, machining step size, coil current and spindle speed) on change in Micro-Vickers hardness were studied. The maximum and minimum change in Micro-Vickers hardness that achieved from all the experiments were (40.4 and 1.1) respectively. The contribution percent of (feed rate, machining step size, coil current and spindle speed) were (7.1, 18.068, 17.376 and 37.894) % respectively. After MAF process all the micro surface cracks that generated on the workpiece surface was completely removed from the surface.

Prediction of Surface Roughness and Optimization of Cutting Parameters in CNC Turning of Rotational Features

Yousif K. Shounia; Tahseen F. Abaas; Raed R. Shwaish

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1143-1153

This research presents a model for prediction surface roughness in terms of process parameters in turning aluminum alloy 1200. The geometry to be machined has four rotational features: straight, taper, convex and concave, while a design of experiments was created through the Taguchi L25 orthogonal array experiments in minitab17 three factors with five Levels depth of cut (0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.12) mm, spindle speed (1200, 1400, 1600, 1800 and 2000) r.p.m and feed rate (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100) mm/min. A multiple non-linear regression model has been used which is a set of statistical extrapolation processes to estimate the relationships input variables and output which the surface roughness which prediction outside the range of the data. According to the non-linear regression model, the optimum surface roughness can be obtained at 1800 rpm of spindle speed, feed-rate of 80 mm/min and depth of cut 0.04 mm then the best surface roughness comes out to be 0.04 μm at tapper feature at depth of cut 0.01 mm and same spindle speed and feed rate pervious which gives the error of 3.23% at evolution equation

Removal of Iron From Produced Water Using Silica Adsorbent Material

Zamen K. Mekhelf; Akeel D. Subhi; Ramzy S. Hamied

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1154-1159
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.1125

The removal of Iron from produced water using adsorbent materials is taking a space of attention from the perspective of researchers. In this work, the characterization of chemically modified silica used as Iron ions adsorbent using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser granularity instrument was performed. The point of zero charge (PZC) of modified silica was determined using titration method. Different parameters were used to better approach Iron removal. These parameters are 0.2 and 0.4 mg/l modified silica adsorbent dose, 30-180 min adsorption time and pH values of 4-10. The results showed that modified silica exhibited higher removal efficiency of Iron due to its surface characteristics. The results also showed that at 60 min adsorption time and pH 7, the maximum Iron removal efficiency with 99.99% and 99.98% was obtained using modified silica dose of 0.4 mg/l and 0.2 mg/l, respectively.

Optimization of Plasma Cutting Parameters on Dimensional Accuracy and Machining Time for Low Carbon Steel

Sami A. Hamood; Vian N. Najm

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1160-1168
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.1151

This work aims to study the influence of plasma arc cutting parameters on dimensional accuracy and machining time for mild steel (1010) material with the thickness (4 mm). Selected three cutting parameters (arc current, cutting speed, and arc distance) or the experimental work. 12 tests have been performed at each test one parameter has been changed with four various levels and other parameters are constant. The influence of the cutting parameters on response results (dimensional accuracy and machining time) have been studied and analyzed by using response surface methodology (RSM) using the second-order model and main effect plot have been generated of each parameter on response results by using ANOVA depended on results of response surface analysis. The results of the response surface analysis showed that the important influencing parameters on dimensional accuracy were cutting speed and arc current as well as on deviation of dimensional accuracy, and the machining time is further affected with the current more than the cutting speed and the standoff distance. The outcomes of response surface analysis showed that the optimal setting of the cutting parameters to obtain at high dimensional accuracy were (arc current= 110 A, cutting speed = 4000 m/min, arc distance = 2mm) and to obtain on less machining time was (arc current= 110 A, cutting speed = 4000 m/min, arc distance = 5mm)

Experimental Study on Performance and Emission Characteristic of Diesel Engine using Sunflower oil Biodiesel Blends

Ghassan S . Ali; Abed AL-Kadim M . Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1169-1177
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.385

Biodiesel fuel is a liquid biofuel produced by chemical process form new and used phytogenic oils, animal fats. Biodiesel fuels can be utilization alone or mixing with the pure diesel at different proportion. In the present work a diesel engine type (FIAT) , four cylinder, variable speed, direct injection was operated by sunflower oil methyl ester , biodiesel at different blend ratio . five different ratio of biodiesel blends 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by volume is used in this study and compared with using of pure diesel at variable loads and variable engine speed. The effect of biodiesel additive to pure diesel on the performance and emission characteristics. Adjust the engine speed at 1100 rpm by means of the engine tachometer and digital tachometer, and reduce the load gradually until the engine speed increased to 1900 rpm automatically by increments of 200 rpm. The BSFC for B20 It seems less than the other ratio of biodiesel blends, and the BTE of biodiesel blends is lower than the pure diesel but the B20 having high BTE in comparison with the other biodiesel- diesel mixtures. the UHC and CO emission for B20 is less than the biodiesel blends and pure diesel, but the NOX emission for B20 is lower than the other biodiesel blends and higher than pure diesel. The present work shows the B20 relatively is a better performance and combustion characteristic than that biodiesel blends ratio

Effect of Tin Addition on Shape Memory Effect and Mechanical Properties of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

Raad S. Ahmed Adnan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1178-1186
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.440

This study examines the effect of Sn additions on Cu-14%Al-4.5%Ni shape memory alloy. Sn was added in three different percentages (0.3,1,3) %. The alloys were mechanically tested both in compression test and micro hardness test. Also, a thermo-mechanical test was performed on the alloys. Results showed an increase in the transformation temperature outside the domain and also a better recovery strain with the increase of Sn percentage of 3% Sn addition showed the best results in mechanical properties while the 3% Sn showed a better Shape Memory Properties near to super elastic.

Direct Current Deadbeat Predictive Controller for BLDC Motor Using Single DC-Link Current Sensor

Qaed M. Ali; Mohammed M. Ezzaldean

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1187-1199
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.471

BLDC motors are characterized by electronic commutation, which is performed by using an electric three-phase inverter. The direct control system of the BLDC motor consists of double loops; including the inner-loop for current regulating and outer-loop for speed control. The operation of the current controller requires feedback of motor currents; the conventional current controller uses two current sensors on the ac side of the inverter to measure the currents of two phases, while the third current would be accordingly calculated. These two sensors should have the same characteristics, to achieve balanced current measurements. It should be noted that the sensitivity of these sensors changes with time. In the case of one sensor fails, both of them must be replaced. To overcome this problem, it is preferable to use one sensor instead of two. The proposed control system is based on a deadbeat predictive controller, which is used to regulate the DC current of the BLDC motor. Such a controller can be considered as digital controller mode, which has fast response, high precision and can be easily implemented with microprocessor. The proposed control system has been simulated using Matlab software, and the system is tested at a different operating condition such as low speed and high speed.

Simulation Design of Blood-pump Intelligent Controller Based on PID-like fuzzy logic Technique

Raghda S. Raheem; Mohammed Y. Y.; Saleem K. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1200-1213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.534

This paper presents a blood pump with a bearingless brushless DC motor, supported by speed, torque, and suspension force controllers. Simulation of the pump motor and its controllers tested by MATLAB/Simulink. Two Proportional plus Integral (PI) controllers are employed for controlling the rotational speed and torque of the motor. For controlling the suspension force a comparative study is presented between the Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) controller and two inputs PID-like Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). A particle swarm optimization technique is used to find the best values for the controller’s parameters. The results of the speed and torque controllers exhibit a good time response to reach the desired speed with a short period of time and to decrease the distorting effects of the load torque successfully. Under similar conditions, the PID-like FLC that controls the suspension forces shows a better time response compared to the PID controller. An enhancement in the responses is rated between 18% and 49%, measured using the absolute integral of error criteria on the x and y axes, and in the processing, time rated between 38% and 47%, very high oscillation suppression capability is observed in the PID-like FLC response.

The Hybrid (PVT) Double-Pass System with a Mixed-Mode Solar Dryer for Drying Banana

Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Mohammed K. Alsaadi; Saifalddeen A. Hussien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1214-1225
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.535

This paper proposes a developed numerical and experimental design of a hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) double-pass counter-flow system connected with the mixed-mode solar dryer system. The mixed-mode solar dryer considers the most efficient mode because it has two heat sources, from solar radiation and the hot airflow which is supplied by the PVT system. The PVT system is often unused for drying applications; therefore, the whole proposed PVT solar system in this work is utilized for drying applications. This system is not only massive fuel savings, but also crucial to improve the quality of the dried product in terms of color, aroma, and taste. To verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed system, the system is utilized to dry 300g of slices of banana, where the obtained range of air temperature is from 43.2 to 60.2°C. The slices of banana are distributed identically between upper and lower trays. The initial moisture rate of banana was about 78%, and the most dropped in moisture content was from 78% to 28.12% in the lower tray at 0.031kg/s after 8 hours of the drying process. It was noticed that the most and least decreasing in weight of banana samples was from 150 to 48g and from 150 to 55g in lower and upper tray, respectively, at 0.031 and 0.017 kg/s mass flow rate. This gives an indication that the highest reduction was 68% of banana weight at a high mass flow rate of airflow. The critical parameter such as temperature distribution of the PVT with dryer room, useful heat gain, and thermal efficiency are computed by using the MATLAB 2015b program which is built for this purpose. The highest heat gain and thermal efficiencies were 423.7 and 52.98%, respectively, at 1:00 PM when the mass flow rate 0.031 kg/s.

Effect of Powder-Mixed Dielectric on EDM Process Performance

Safa R. Fadhil; Shukry H. Aghdeab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1226-1235
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.554

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is extensively used to manufacture different conductive materials, including difficult to machine materials with intricate profiles. Powder Mixed Electro-Discharge Machining (PMEDM) is a modern innovation in promoting the capabilities of conventional EDM. In this process, suitable materials in fine powder form are mixed in the dielectric fluid. An equal percentage of graphite and silicon carbide powders have been mixed together with the transformer oil and used as the dielectric media in this work. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of some process parameters such as peak current, pulse-on time, and powder concentration of machining High-speed steel (HSS)/(M2) on the material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR) and the surface roughness (Ra). Experiments have been designed and analyzed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) approach by adopting a face-centered central composite design (FCCD). It is found that added graphite-silicon carbide mixing powder to the dielectric fluid enhanced the MRR and Ra as well as reduced the TWR at various conditions. Maximum MRR was (0.492 g/min) obtained at a peak current of (24 A), pulse on (100 μs), and powder concentration (10 g/l), minimum TWR was (0.00126 g/min) at (10 A, 100 μs, and 10 g/l), and better Ra was (3.51 μm) at (10 A, 50 μs, and 10 g/l).

Effect of Filler Metals on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of GTAW Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy (AA2024-T3)

Muna K. Abbass; Jihad G. Abd Ul-Qader

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1236-1245
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.1277

This study presents an appropriate filler metal or welding electrode to join aluminum alloy (AA2024-T3) sheet of 3.2 mm thickness with a square butt joint using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process. This process was carried out at three different welding currents with three various filler metals: ER4047 (12% Si), ER4043 (5% Si), and ER5356 (5% Mg). Experiments were conducted to investigate the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The effect of various filler metals upon the weld joints quality were analyzed via an X-ray radiographic and tensile test. Hardness test, microstructures, SEM, and XRD also conducted to the welded specimens. It was found that the best result was at 100 Ampere with using filler metal (ER5356) which produced the highest strength of 240 MPa in comparison with welded joints with utilizing fillers (ER4043) and (ER4047) having values of 235 MPa and 225 MPa, correspondingly. The hardness results showed that the highest hardness values were at the weld metal for ER4047 and ER4043, then decreased to HAZ and increased in the base metal. While in the case of ER5356, the highest hardness was in HAZ and decreased in the weld metal. The fractography of the fracture surface of the welded joints after the tensile test was analyzed using SEM