Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758



Research Paper

Properties and Behavior of Starch Biopolymer Concrete

Waleed A. Abbas; Hawraa M. Mohsen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1414-1420
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.365

Starch act as natural polymer has been got from Wheat, Tapioca, and Corn. Corn starch has been investigated as biopolymer and has been added to concrete in different percentages (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) by cement weight and the study shows the effect of using starch on some properties of concrete in the fresh state ( slum and fresh density) and at hardened state (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength) at 28 days. The mix proportion was(1:2.3:2.3) (cement: sand: gravel) respectively and at constant w/c equal to 0.47.The results indicate that the optimum percentage of starch addition was 0.5%, so it showed an increase by 50%in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength; while, the increases in flexural strength were 26%. Slump showed a 25% increase and fresh density showed a 2.5% increase at 0.5% addition of starch.

Extraction of Zirconium From Iraqi Bauxite Ore

Israa A. Aziz; Moayyed G. Jalhom; Muhanad A. Kheriallah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1421-1429
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.523

This research is devoted to the study of the extraction of zirconium from Iraqi Bauxite Ore by using hydrometallurgical method. The chemical analysis was done to the bauxite ore by using X-ray florescence, X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Zirconium Extraction was performed via three stages; the first stage is leaching of bauxite with sodium hydroxide for alumina leaching. The second stage is leaching of zirconium species from the remained powder produced from stage one after washing with deionized water and, nitric acid (HNO3 solutions). The results of the first stage has reflected the recovery of 42.27 % of Al2O3 which has been leached 100°C temperature, 7.5 molar of NaOH, liquid to solid ratio of 20/1, and stirring rate 450 rpm. The highest leaching percent of zirconium (Zr%) from the red mud approached 98.48 % at 100°C temperature, 7 molar acid concentration, 120 min. contact time, solid to liquid ratio (S/L) of 16/1, and stirring rate of 450 rpm. 99.47% recovery of zirconium was accomplished from nitric acid solutions by use of 3molar tri-n-butylephosphate (TBP)in kerosene at ,contact time for 6 min, and organic to aqueous phase (O/A) of 4/1.

Redesign of Water Filter Workshop Using SLP

Nrjis Bassim; Luma A. Al-Kindi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1430-1440
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.564

Workshop and factory design is one of the most important problems facing companies to enhance their performance and productivity. Facility layout issue is a fundamental fragment of accommodations planning which have a target of organize all manufacturing entities to be located as a facility having the objective to improve manufacturing processes for an organization. The aim of this paper is to study, evaluate and then creating an improved water filter workshop adopting Muther’s (SLP) Systematic Layout Planning Procedure for increasing production and utilizing spaces. The case study in this paper is a practical one for the existing layout in Al-Faris Company in the water filter workshop. The excited layout is studied and manufacturing processes are explored with flow investigation. Activity relationship graph is molded to develop a novel layout alternative. Analyzing by using SLP technique showed that the results for the proposed layout got 341score; while the current layout got only 281 score based on the manufacturing and facility relations. The results show that, the proposed layout is much better than the existing layout of the workshop as significant reduction in the space of material handling and workflow drive and lead to increase the unit production

Adsorption Desulfurization of Actual Heavy Crude Oil Using Activated Carbon

Yusra A. Abd Al-Khodor; Talib M. Albayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1441-1453
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.615

The strict new regulations to reduce the sulfur content of fuel require new economical and efficient ways to remove the sulfur from the organic sulfur components. In the current work, sulfur was removed from the actual crude oil containing 2.5 wt.% from southern Iraq, specifically the Halfaya Oil Field was studied using adsorption desulfurization with activated carbon (AC). The effects of different operating conditions, including the dose of AC (0.2-1.0 gm), time (15–120 min) and temperature (30–50°C) were investigated. The best operating conditions were obtained as 0.8 gm AC, 90 minutes and 50℃, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were implemented. The steady data were best denoted via Temkin models with correlation coefficient (R2= 0.974). The kinetics sulfur components on activated carbon were examined by using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order kinetics models and Intra-Particle diffusion. The adsorption process can be well described by pseudo-first order adsorption kinetic model with correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9552). Thermodynamic parameters, which include Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGo), Enthalpy (ΔHo) and Entropy (ΔSo), were determined in the present research and showed that the adsorption of sulfur components on activated carbon is spontaneous, endothermic and increases the randomness of the sulfur compounds on the surface of the adsorbent. The content of sulfur in the treated crude oil was reduced from 2.5% to 1.8% corresponding to a desulfurization efficiency of 28%.

The Effects of Sunlight on Particle matter & Radiation Pollution in Baghdad Airport Area

Fatima K. Hameed; Faris H. Mohammed; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1454-1460
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.690

The gasses emitted from the various activities, in addition to particle matter (PM10) play a major role in air quality deterioration. Particles matter and radiation are two of the most important parameters that exist in airports and were evaluated considering the variations in sunlight energy. The measured values were collected from eleven sites, which were chosen based on their influence by aviation activities. The measurements were compared to the (Iraqi Regulations and U.S EPA) for particle matter. While for radiation, the measurements were compared with the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The data were statistically analyzed, and the values of maximum, the mean, and the standard deviation were calculated. It was found that the values of the above statistical parameters of PM were within the limitation in all points. On the other hand, values of radiation were also within the limits except for the mean, which was higher than the standard limits. Moreover, the analysis proved that sunlight decreases the ratio of detecting particle mater. On the contrary, radiation detection was increased with sunlight due to the amount of radiation, which enters the atmosphere from the sun. These findings are important to assess the environmental quality of airports.

Study the Ductility of Aluminum Alloy Processed by Asymmetric Rolling Process

Adil. Sh. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1461-1469
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.899

Asymmetric rolling refers to the conditions wherein velocities or diameters of two work rolls are different. Compared to symmetrical rolling, asymmetric rolling is more effective on microstructure modification and texture evolution. Intense shear deformation can be introduced into asymmetric rolling to enhance the ductility and formability of aluminum alloy and this is the aim of current research. The process of the asymmetrical rolling was done on specimens with different reductions (10%,15%, and 20% reductions). Then the tensile test was conducted at room temperature at the strain rate range between 0.33×10-3s-1 - 3.33×10-3s-1 to study the ductility property of the asymmetric rolling-deformed samples and also compared with as-received samples. The results show that the as-received specimen gave the highest elongation of 42.7%, while the lowest elongation of 22.4% was obtained by the (20%) thickness reduction specimen. Also, the as-received sample at an initial strain rate of 3.33×10-3s-1 gives the highest tensile strength value equal to 550MPa.

The Solubility of Phosphogypsum and Recovery of Heavy and Radioactive Elements

Waleed T. Rashid; Israa A. Alkadir; Moayyed G. Jalhom

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1470-1480
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.907

The essential purpose of this paper is to illustrate and inspect the leaching characteristics of Iraqi Phosphogypsum (PG). The paper presents the results of the dissolution characteristics of heavy and radioactive elements from PG, which is a by-product result from the industry of phosphate fertilizers. Leachability of heavy and radioactive elements in deionized water that has been inspected under various states of leaching, including solid/liquid ratio (10, 20 and 50 /1g/L) and temperatures (25, 45 and 85 °C), with constant other parameters such as string speed (300 rpm) and contact time (60 minutes). For the most analysis elements, the progressive release of the metals, in addition to the major elements reflects high mobility. The mobility of trace metals in PG has been generally classified into three main degrees: (1) high mobility elements such as Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cr; (2) moderate mobility elements such as Sr, V, Ba,Y,Hg, K and Ni; and (3)l ow mobility elements like Ca,Cu,Fe, and Ag. The maximum concentrations of the most of the metals were attained from a leaching state of 10/1g/L. Regarding temperature, the experimental results revealed that the PG solubility to leaching out elements increases noticeably as the applied temperature ranges from 25 to 45 °C; after this degree, the leaching efficiency decreases. Chloride had a positive and negative effect on the solubility of phosphorus. Calcium chloride had an adverse effect on solubility and observed reduced solubility with increased chloride. While the positive effect of sodium and magnesium chloride was observed, the solubility ratio increased with the increase of chlorides. However, the effect of magnesium chloride was higher compared to the sodium chloride one

Optimum Design of Journal Bearings Dimensions for Rotating Machines

Tariq M. Hammza; Ehab N. Abas; Nassear R. Hmoad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1481-1488
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1093

The values of Many parameters which involve in the design of fluid film journal bearings mainly depend on the bearing applied load when using the conventional design method to design the journal bearings, in this study, as well as applied bearing load, the dynamic response and critical speed have been used to calculate the dimensions of journal bearings. In the field of rotating machine, especially a heavy-duty rotating machines, the critical speed and response are the main parameters that specify bearing dimensions. The bearing aspect ratio (bearing length to bore diameter) and bearing clearance have been determined based on rotor maximum critical speed and minimum response displacement. The analytical solution of rotor Eq. of motion was verified by numerical solution via using ANSYS Mechanical APDL 18.0 and by comparing the numerical solution with the preceding study. The final study results clearly showed that the bearing aspect ratio has little effect on the critical speed, but it has a high effect on the dynamic response also the bearing clearance has little effect on the critical speed and considerable effect on the dynamic response. The study showed that the more accurate values of bearing aspect ratio to make the response of rotor as low as possible are about 0.65 - 1 and bearing percent clearance is about 0.15 - 0.2 for different rotor dimensions.

Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Milling Process Using Genetic Algorithm and ANOVA (March 2020)

Marwa Q. Ibraheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1489-1503
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1124

In this present work use a genetic algorithm for the selection of cutting conditions in milling operation such as cutting speed, feed and depth of cut to investigate the optimal value and the effects of it on the material removal rate and tool wear. The material selected for this work was Ti-6Al-4V Alloy using H13A carbide as a cutting tool. Two objective functions have been adopted gives minimum tool wear and maximum material removal rate that is simultaneously optimized. Finally, it does conclude from the results that the optimal value of cutting speed is (1992.601m/min), depth of cut is (1.55mm) and feed is (148.203mm/rev) for the present work.

Investigation the Electrode Wear Rate and Metal Removal Rate in EDM Process using Taguchi and ANOVA Method

Safaa K. Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1504-1510
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1231

The experimental work of this paper leads to electrical discharge machining (EDM). A system for machining in this process has been developed. Many parameters are studied such as current, pulse on-time, pulse off time of the machine. The main aim of this work is to calculate the metal removal rate (MRR) and electrode wear rate (EWR) using copper, electrodes when machining tool steel H13 specimens of a thickness (4mm).
Different current rates are used ranging from (30, 42, and 54) Amp, pulse on-time ranging from (75, 100, and 125) and pulse off time ranging from (25, 50, and 75) found that high current gives large electrode wear and metal removal rate and. The experiment design was by Taguchi Method. From an analysis of variance (ANOVA) the more active influence of input factors on the outputs is currently for metal removal rate (MRR) (58%) and electrode wear rate (EWR) (57)

Comparative Study of Specifications Between Local and Imported Water Pumps and an Energy-Efficient Local Developed Pump

Maryam K. Abdul Wahid; Lamyaa M. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1511-1521
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1317

Conserving energy is one of those important requirements of the environment. In this research, an eco-friendly power saving Water pump [Air coolers] is developed. This development is based on GQFD. The model of this developed Water pump is drawn by a CAD solid model (version 7, Autodesk AutoCAD 2011). The electrical motor is responsible for the rotation of the pillar and further distributes Water inside the Air cooler [regardless of the size]. In the developed model motor is canceled where the rotation is throughout attachment to the Air cooler. A further prototype of this model is made were common and environmental quality requirements are assessed so as to verify the feasibility of the developed Water pumps. Results show that the power saving (developed) Water pump is of better-quality characteristics relative to available Water pumps available in the Iraqi market and higher head (1.60 m), Velocity in RPM (4600), and flow rate (8.6 L/sec). Also, the developed Water pump is of less noise, a number of parts, pollution, and is safer [regarding environmental requirements]. Due to the development results show save in voltage and current.

Incorporation of Iraqi Rocks in the Production of Eco-Friendly Cement Mortar

Rawnaq S. Mahdi; Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi; Hassan N. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1522-1530
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1479

This work reports on the incorporation of Flint and Kaolin rocks powders in the cement mortar in an attempt to improve its mechanical properties and produce an eco-friendly mortar. Flint and Kaolin powders are prepared by dry mechanical milling. The two powders are added separately to the mortars substituting cement partially. The two powders are found to improve the mechanical properties of the mortars. Hardness and compressive strength are found to increase with the increase of powders constituents in the cement mortars. In addition, the two powders affect water absorption and thermal conductivity of the mortar specimens which are desirable for construction applications. Kaolin is found to have a greater effect on the mechanical properties, water absorption, and thermal conductivity of the mortars than Flint. This behavior is discussed and analyzed based on the compositional and structural properties of the rocks powders.

Evaluation of Eutrophication Levels in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Lake, Iraq (Biological and Chemical study)

Suhair R. Al-Sharifi; Salih A. Al-Bakri; Sataa A.F. Al-Bayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1531-1538
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1601

Within Al-Najaf lake, that is one of the important shallow lakes in Iraq, the lake facing tremendous pressure due to encroachments, discharge of untreated domestic and industrial waste, drainage water from cultivated orchards, dumping of solid waste and illegal diversion of water and currently it's still suffering from these problems and neglect. The study aimed to evaluate the eutrophication status. Eutrophication is a grave problem in lakes, a knowledge about the eutrophic state help in providing a make efficient realization of the eutrophic problem.
This study conducted to assess the Eutrophication level with a scale 0 – 100 depending on the trophic state index (TSI) and (CTSI) calculation by measuring (Chl-a), (TP), (TN) and (TSS), also measured the parameters (Tw), (Pb), (TDS), (pH), (EC), (MPN) and (COD). The least significant difference (LSD) and ANOVA analysis were performed by using the Genstat statistical program. Lake can be classified according to the Carlson index as eutrophic (CTSI > 80) most hegemony of blue-green algae, extensive macrophyte troubles. Adding, according to Trophic State Index classification (TSItotal was ranged between 88.104-89.49 depending on TP, TSS, TN, P/N and Chl-a concentrations), were classified as the lake as extremely hypereutrophic and algal scums.

Analysis of Wear, Tensile and Thermal Properties of Poly Methyl Methacrylate Filled with Licorice Particle and Pomegranate Peels

Reem A. Mohammed; Marwah S. Attallah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1539-1557
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1687

In the present work, analysis of wear behavior, tensile and thermal properties have been done for two sets Poly Methyl Methacrylate samples which is reinforced through licorice particles and pomegranate peels particles. Wear rate resistance is evaluated based on Taguchi’s experimental design L9 (MINITAB 18) under the three factors: weight fraction of fillers (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% wt.) sliding time (5, 8 and 11 min) and load applied (10, 15and 20N) using a pin-on-disk device. Results display that the samples (Poly Methyl Methacrylate +5% licorice particles and 5% pomegranate peels particles) show the best resistance wear of (0.045×10-6 and 0.10×10-6) respectively. Signal to noise (S/N) results showed that 5% weight fraction (licorice particles and pomegranate particles with PMMA), 11 minutes (sliding time) and 15N (applied load) give the best resistance wear. Statistical analysis of tensile and thermal tests, exhibit that the best mean value of the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity are (±73 MPa, ±70 MPa, ±4.800 GPa, ±4.300 GPa, ±.5600 W/m k, ±.5400 W/m k, ±.3800 mm2/sec, ±.2800 mm2/sec) respectively, of the samples (PMMA+5% licorice particles and 5% pomegranate peel particles). While that the best mean value of the elongation at break (±3.600%, ±3.500%) respectively, of the samples (PMMA + 1% licorice particles and 1% pomegranate peel particles). The results showed that the addition of licorice and pomegranate particles to poly methyl methacrylate resin has improved the properties of wear, tensile and thermal properties.

Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Black Tea Leaves Extract as Adsorbent for Removing Eriochrome Blue-Black B Dye

Dalal Ghanim; Ghayda Y. Al-Kindi; Ahmed Kh. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1558-1569
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1225

Recently, the world has directed to find environmentally friendly and clean materials to be used to treat wastes difficult to treat in the traditional way such as dyes. The object of this study was to synthesize iron nanoparticles using black tea extracts in an environmentally sustainable method. Also, it was developed by supporting with bentonite, used to remove Eriochrome blue-black B dyes from synthesis wastewater of textile factory. From the results, it was noted that black tea leaf extract has reduced iron ions to iron nanoparticles at room temperature. Composite iron nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies where the diameter of iron nanoparticles was less than 70 nm. This research shows that ferrous nanoparticles can be manufactured using black tea leaf extract as a reducing agent. It also shows better-supported nanoparticles than unsupported. The decolorization efficiency catalyzed BT-NZVI, B-BT-NZVI increased from (14%, 42%) to (48%, 68%) at 180 min of batch processes when the NZVI concentration was increased from 0.5 g/L to 2 g/L respectively.