Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 38, Issue 3B

Volume 38, Issue 3B, December 2020, Page 85-211

Research Paper

Ethanol Gas Sensor Fabrication Based on ZnO Flower Like Nanorods

Abdulqader D. Faisal; Mofeed A. Jaleel; Fahad Z. Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 85-97
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.279

Zinc oxide flower-like nanorods (ZnO NRs) was successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method. The growth process was conducted with seed layer concentrations of 20mM. The as-synthesized nanostructures were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer. The analysis results revealed a pure Wurtzite ZnO hexagonal nanostructures with preferred orientation (002) along the c-direction. The calculated band gap of average crystallite size is 3.2eV and 25 nm respectively. New designed, constructed and successfully calibrated for ethanol gas sensing was found. The ethanol gas sensor was fabricated at room temperature based on the ZnO NRs film. The synthesized materials proved to be a good candidate for the ethanol gas sensor. The optimum results of the gas sensor measurements of the synthesized gas sensor are as follows, the sensitivity, response time, and recovery time at 25 °C are 60%, 80 Seconds and 80 seconds respectively, and at 200 °C are 70%, 60 seconds and 50 seconds respectively.

Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Substitution Principle and Shuffling Scheme

Atyaf Hamad; Alaa K. Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 98-103
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.433

This research presents a method of image encryption that has been designed based on the algorithm of complete shuffling, transformation of substitution box, and predicated image crypto-system. This proposed algorithm presents extra confusion in the first phase because of including an S-box based on using substitution by AES algorithm in encryption and its inverse in Decryption. In the second phase, shifting and rotation were used based on secrete key in each channel depending on the result from the chaotic map, 2D logistic map and the output was processed and used for the encryption algorithm. It is known from earlier studies that simple encryption of images based on the scheme of shuffling is insecure in the face of chosen cipher text attacks. Later, an extended algorithm has been projected. This algorithm performs well against chosen cipher text attacks. In addition, the proposed approach was analyzed for NPCR, UACI (Unified Average Changing Intensity), and Entropy analysis for determining its strength.

A Study of Some Mechanical and Physical Properties for Palm Fiber/Polyester Composite

Samah M. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 104-114
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.598

This research has been done by reinforcing the matrix (unsaturated polyester) resin with natural material (date palm fiber (DPF)). The fibers were exposure to alkali treatment before reinforcement. The samples have been prepared by using hand lay-up technique with fiber volume fraction of (10%, 20% and 30%). After preparation of the mechanical and physical properties have been studied such as, compression, flexural, impact strength, thermal conductivity, Dielectric constant and dielectric strength. The polyester composite reinforced with date palm fiber at volume fraction (10% and 20%) has good mechanical properties rather than pure unsaturated polyester material, while the composite reinforced with 30% Vf present poor mechanical properties. Thermal conductivity results indicated insulator composite behavior. The effect of present fiber polar group induces of decreasing in dielectric strength, and increasing dielectric constant. The reinforcement composite 20% Vf showed the best results in mechanical, thermal and electrical properties.

Key Generation from Multibiometric System Using Meerkat Algorithm

Duha D. Salman; Raghad A. Azeez; Abdul Mohssen J. Hossen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 115-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.652

Biometrics are short of revocability and privacy while cryptography cannot adjust the user’s identity. By obtaining cryptographic keys using biometrics, one can obtain the features such as revocability, assurance about user’s identity, and privacy. Multi-biometrical based cryptographic key generation approach has been proposed, subsequently, left and right eye and ear of a person are uncorrelated from one to other, and they are treated as two independent biometrics and combine them in our system. None-the-less, the encryption keys are produced with the use of an approach of swarm intelligence. Emergent collective intelligence in groups of simple autonomous agents is collectively termed as a swarm intelligence. The Meerkat Clan Key Generation Algorithm (MCKGA) is a method for the generation of a key stream for the encryption of the plaintext. This method will reduce and distribute the number of keys. Testing of system, it was found that the keys produced by the characteristics of the eye are better than the keys produced by the characteristics of the ear. The advantages of our approach comprise generation of strong and unique keys from users’ biometric data using MCKGA and it is faster and accurate in terms of key generation.

Synthesis of Some New Derivatives of Pyrrolidine-2-one and Studying Their Antibacterial Potentials

Nadia A. Betti; Redha Ib. Hussain; Sahar Ab. Kadhem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 128-141
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.706

New derivatives of pyrrolidine-2-one have been synthesized through lactamization of γ –butyrolactone (GBL) by hydrazine hydrate (80%), ethylene diamine and ethanol amine to afford compounds (1-aminopyrrolidin-2-one), (1-(2-aminoethyl)pyrrolidine-2-one) and (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2-one), respectively. Compound (1-aminopyrrolidin-2-one) underwent several reactions to synthesize the rest of these derivatives. All synthesized compounds were approved by their FT-IR, 1H-NMR and some by Mass spectra. The biological activities of these derivatives were evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Many of these derivatives showed moderate biological activity against one or both kind of bacteria in comparison to amoxicillin and some showed no biological activity at all.

Study the Effect the Laser Intensity on the Behavior of the Kinetic Energy, Drift Energy and the Total Energy of the Silver Plasma

Esam A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 142-149
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.1346

The particle-in-cell plasma simulation program in two dimensions was developed to display the properties of silver plasma under the effect of Ruby laser 694.3 nm with different intensities; 1012Wcm-2, 1015 Wcm-2, 1018 Wcm-2, and 1020 Wcm-2. The time evolution and the properties of total energy, kinetic energy, and drift energy of the system were examined in the region near the critical density (ne=0.2ncr). The charged particles respond to the laser pulse after a specified period of interaction time in the form of an increase in the energy of the system. This response depends on the intensity of the laser pulse used in this work. A significant increase was observed in plasma energy due to the efficient transfer of laser energy to plasma particles by the Inverse Bremsstrahlung process. The effectiveness of this process is reduced when the laser intensity is increased. This result is shown especially when using 1020 Wcm-2 laser intensity. The results indicated that the plotting of the electron velocity distributions during different time steps of interaction is Maxwellian and it was observed that the curves have a strong energy tail that indicates energy transfers and heating to the plasma.

Word Retrieval based on FREAK Descriptor to Identify the Image of the English Letter that Corresponds to the First Letter of the Word

Ekhlas F. Naser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 150-160
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.1511

For the reason of colossal technological developments, the requirement of image information methods became a significant issue. The aim of this research was to retrieve the word based on Fast Retina Key-points (FREAK) descriptor .The suggested system consists of four stages. In the first stage, the images of English letters are loaded. Points are detected via SUSAN in the second stage. FREAK used in the third stage and then a database was created containing 26 English letters. The image to be tested was entered and the points are extracted in the fourth stage and then Manhattan distance was used to calculate the distance between the value of the test image descriptors and all the values of the descriptors in a database. The experimental results show that the precision and the recall values were high for retrieval of the words when using SUSAN because it extracts a large number of interest points compared to the Harris method. For example, for the letter H was 104 with SUSAN while it was 42 for Harris, therefore; the precision for retrieval of the word Hour was 89% and recall was 93% when using SUSAN while precision was 77% and recall was 80% when using Harris.

Analysis and Design of 460 GHz Microwave Gyrotron Oscillator

Luma Y. Abbas; Nedal A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 161-167
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.1937

This paper is concerned with the analysis and design of a gyrotron oscillator with 460 GHz that can excite both modes (TE231) the fundamental (230GHz) and (TE061, TE261) second harmonic (near 460GHz). The oscillator is operated with 12KV beam voltage and 100mA beam current, and a computer program was developed to study the cavity in this oscillator and the wave-particle interaction inside it using the forward finite difference technique as a numerical method. The input data of the program are electron energy, velocity ratio, normalized cavity length, the normalized value of the external magnetic field, the mode number (m,n,l), and nth-non van shining root of J_m^' (x)=0 to calculate the beam and starting currents, frequency and quality factor of the cavity. The results show good agreement with other reported works [10]- [12]- [13]- [14], [15] .This oscillator can serve as a millimeter-wave source at the magnetic field of (16.4T) for enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance and can be used to perform the biological experiment.

Considerations on Spark- Gap Channel Radius and Electrical Conductivity

Bassam H. Habib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 168-176
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.1314

A simple phenomenological model is established to determine the temporal evolution of spark gap channel radius and electrical conductivity during the resistive phase period. The present determination is based on the Braginskii’s equation for the channel radius which includes the electrical conductivity of the discharge channel as a constant quantity. In the present model, however, the electrical conductivity is regarded as a time varyingquantity. Basing on this, a mathematical formulation for the channel radius as a function of time was derived, and this has made possible the derivation of an explicit expression for the conductivity as a function of time as well. Taking the temporal average of the electrical conductivity offers an alternative mathematical formulation for the instantaneous radius based on a steady conductivity value that can be determined according to some experimental parameters. It has been verified that both of the channel radius formulations mentioned above lead to similar results for the temporal evolution. The obtained results of the channel radius were used to determine the instantaneous inductance of the spark channel.
The present model was used to examine the role of gas pressure and gap width on the temporal evolutions of the channel radius, conductivity, and inductance in nanosecond spark gaps

Structural Properties of Fe Doped TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Low Cost Hydrothermal Method

Sattar J. Hashim; Khaleel I. Hassoon; Odai N. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 177-183
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.1800

In this work, titanium dioxide films were deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-glass substrates using Hydrothermal method. A low-cost homemade autoclave was used to fabricate pure TiO2 and Fe-doped (0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 1.5%) films. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the predominant phase is rutile (R-TiO2) with peaks at (101), (002) and (112). The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) top and cross-sectional images indicated that the films have vertically aligned nanorods structures with parallelogram cross-sectional areas and aspect ratio range (9.2-15.3).

Diagnosis of Lung Cancer Disease Based on Back-Propagation Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

Hanan A. R. Akkar; Suhad Qasim G. Haddad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 184-196
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.1666

Early stage detection of lung cancer is important for successful controlling of the diseases, also to offer additional chance to the patients in order to survive. So , algorithms that are related with computer vision and Image processing are extremely important for early medical diagnosis of lung cancer. In current work ( ) computed tomography scan images were collected from several patients Classification was done using Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network ( ).It is considered as a powerful artificially intelligent technique with training rule for optimization to update the weights of the overall connections in order to determine the abnormal image. Several pre-processing operations and morphologic techniques were introduced to improve the condition of the image and make it suitable for detection cancer.Histogram and ( ) Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix were applied toget best features extraction analysis from lung image.Three types of activation functions(trainlm ,trainbr ,traingd) were used which gives a significant accuracy for detecting cancer in scan lung image related to the suggested algorithm. Best results were obtained with accuracy rate 95.9 % in trainlm activation function.. Graphic User Interface ( ) was displaying to show the final diagnosis for lung.

Synthesis and Characterization of Complexes of New Derivative of Cyclopentaphenanthren-3-one with Manganese (II), Iron (II), Cobalt (II), Nickel (II), and Copper (II) Ions

Liblab S. Jassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 197-203
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.681

This work involves the chemical preparation from a series of metal Complexes having the general composition M(L)2(H2O)2, where M = [Mn+2, Fe+2, Co+2, Ni+2 and Cu+2].
The ligand used was 9-fluoro-17-(1-hydrazono-2-hydroxyethyl)-11,17-dihydroxy-10,13,16-trimethyl-6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-3H-cyclopenta[α]phenanthren-3-one (FHDTCP), who was diagnosed by H-NMR spectra.
These complexes have been prepared and characterized by the ligand to metal by molar conductance, spectral (UV-Visible and FT-IR), and atomic absorption studies. The IR spectral measurements forecast interference to oxygen, nitrogen in coordination from the electron pairs to the metal ion in the center. And suggested the complexes geometry be octahedral for all.

Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment in the Chemical Stores of the University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

Azhar M. Haleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 204-211
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.894

Chemicals are used daily at the university, by its students or staff so it’s necessary to develop a chemical management system to protect their workers and students from accidents caused by exposure to chemicals of various forms, the present study explains the methodology for assessing the health effects and risks of exposure to chemicals in the chemical stores of University of Technology (UOT) by using semi- quantitative risk assessment technique depends on a descriptive analytical approach, by collecting the requested information for seven main stores within the university by questionnaire form included inquiries about personal information about employees, level of education and years of experience, it also included inquiries about chemical stores and storage volumes, at first identified the exposed people, detected high demand chemicals, subsequently identified the chemical hazardous factors, exposure rate and risk level of each substance, ultimately the risk was identified for 41 chemicals among them four strong acids, hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric and chromic with high exposure rate
benzene and xylene that have high risk level, from results of chemical survey can be conclude 71% of the total chemicals classified as high to moderate risk level, so the study recommends the continuity of the periodic assessment of chemical hazards within the stores of university, include laboratories in assessment procedures, providing of personal safety equipment.