Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 1,

Issue 1

Research Paper

Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Life of 7025 Aluminum Alloy

Mohammed H. Alwan; Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Ghada A. Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1587

Aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft industry where good corrosion resistance, light weight and high strength are the primary requirements.
In the present study, attempts have been made to extend the application of mechanical and fatigue properties of AA7025 in laboratory with corrosive environment of media and combined corrosive at elevated temperature (ET) 150⁰C. The experimental results and analysis of corrosion and corrosion - elevated temperature mechanical and fatigue behavior of the samples showed that the 3.5%NaCl corrosive media and corrosion - elevated temperature (ET) greatly decrease the properties mentioned. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Yield stress YS of AA 7025 reduced by 5.3% and 14.83% respectively due to combine corrosion and elevated temperature but these properties reduce by 8.7% and 19.35% respectively due to combined actions corrosion (ET). The Brinell hardness also reduced by 4.2% and 11.26% due to corrosion only and corrosion and (ET). Ductility was increased by 10.5% and 16.25% for corrosion and corrosion (ET). The environment and elevated temperature – corrosion have significant effect on reduction the fatigue life and strength of AA 7025. It’s clear that the combine corrosion and (ET) combination reduce safely of the mechanical properties compared with the corrosion only and room temperature conditions.

Thermal Performance of an Evacuated-Tube Solar Collector Using Nanofluids and an Electrical Curtain Controlled by an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Hussam J. Rashid; Khalid F. Sultan; Hosham S. Anead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 8-19
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2021

This paper studies the improvement of an evacuated tube solar collectors(ETSCs) performance in two way. The first is by adding a finned electronic curtain in front of the solar collector. While the second is by using a nanofluid instead of pure water. The purpose of the curtain is to increase the amount of solar radiation reflected toward the collector. The curtain is distinguished by its self-ability to track the sun's rays automatically. The electronic curtain is also closed to shade the tubes depending on the movement of the electronic curtain's fins and the nanofluid's temperatures. MATLAB algorithm has been used to design the Simulink model and control the system using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The results showed that the system performance improved using TiO2(50nm)+PW) as a working fluid without the curtain are (3.906%,5.34%, and7.407%), while the rate of improvement in the case of distilled water only was 2.34%and3.81%. Finally, by adding the finned electronic curtain to the system and use of TiO2(50nm)+PW) as a working fluid, the efficiency increased by 7.03%,9.16%, and 11.89%. The results showed that the performance of evacuated tubes solar collectors increased by using a nanofluid and the finned electronic curtain.

Corn Oil Performance’s A Bio Cooling Fluid in Electric Distribution Transformer

Ahmed A. Khudhair; Mohammed H. Jabal; Samar J. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2031

Biodegradable (Vegetable) fluids are considered as environmentally friendly fluids and possess an abundant benefit, they are wildly available by means of renewable sources compared to different kinds of mineral-oil.  Given the occurrence of environmental pollution and health problems from mineral oils.  This paper investigates the effect of utilizing the corn oil for the cooling performing features of distribution electric transformer, and making a comparison with the cooling performance of the electric transformer whith cooling by the commercial mineral fluid. This investigation is done by using the four- ball machine and electric transformers. Each experiment that was executed complies with ASTM D4172-B under different electrical loads (200-1600W). Depending on the outcomes of the four-ball machine and electric transformer, it has been noticed that the corn oil has the adequate cooling behavior compared to the commercial cooling fluid. It maintains the insulation housing between the coils, and maintains the coils when overloaded at peak time.

Design and Implementation of an Electromechanical Brake System

Haider N. Faisal; Farag M. Mohammed; Jamal A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2150

Nowadays, hydraulic brakes are already being replaced by electromechanical brakes (EMB) to improve quick-response brakes, efficient fuel consumption, environmentally sound, simple maintenance, and enhanced safety design. It is suggested that the electromechanical brake will be one of the most important brake systems in the future. This study focuses on designing and implementing an electromechanical brake based on a brushless DC (BLDC) motor and position controller to generate and control the required braking force at a variable friction coefficient between disc and pad. A feedback controller equipped with a measuring sensor is usually utilized to control this type of brake. Thus, three controllers for current, speed, and position were implemented in successive loops to control the motor movement. This system has current, speed, and force sensors. Due to implementation difficulties and cost issues of braking, the clamping sensor should be replaced with a position sensor with some modification where a position controller has been designed and implemented. The results showed that the clamping force of the brake system can follow the target accurately and it has good performance. Also, it is shown that this system can adjust the brake force more accurately and quickly compared with the traditional.

The Combining Effect of Inclination Angle, Aspect Ratio and Thermal Loading on the Dynamic Response of Clamped-Clamped Pipe Conveying Fluid

Jabbar H. Mohmmed; Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Qasim A. Atiyah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 40-48
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2159

The investigation of the vibration of pipes containing flowing fluid is very essential to obtain an understanding of their dynamic behavior and prevent their catastrophic failure due to fatigue. Pipelines are subjected to environmental static and dynamic loading including self-weight, restoring, and Carioles forces. This research aims to investigate the vibrations of pipeline structures for examining their structural integrity under these conditions. A linear Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used to analyze the dynamic response of flexible, inclined, and fixed ends pipe conveying fluid made of polypropylene random-copolymer. Closed-form expression for dynamic response is presented by using combining of finite Fourier sine and Laplace transforms method. The influences of the inclination angle, thermal load, and aspect ratio (ratio of outside diameter to the length of pipe) on the dynamical behavior of the pipe–fluid system are studied. The obtained results attest to the importance of considering combining effects of the inclination angle, thermal load, and aspect ratio in analyzing and designing pipe conveying fluid. It is observed that the dynamic deflection can be significantly increased by increasing temperature, aspect ratio, and fluid velocity, while it reduced by increasing the inclination angle with the horizontal axis in the range of (0-90).

Optimization Process for Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking of Vegetable Oil by Microwave Irradiation

Raheek I. Ibrahim; Ahmed H. Reja; Abeer J. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 49-59
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1981

Biodiesel is the main alternative to diesel fuel today. The waste cooking vegetable oil can be used as a basic material in its preparation. Microwave irradiation is used in its production and it is considered one of the effective methods that do not consume much power. In this study, biodiesel is produce and determine the factors affecting the quality and quantity of production also investigated using experimental design technique. The effecting of operating variables power, time, and oil-to-ethanol molar ratio were studied, as well as the effect of interaction between operating variables on the quality of production. The optimum conditions that have been found are; the power that the microwave operates is 480 watts, the reaction time is 3.5 minutes, and the oil-to-ethanol molar ratio is 1:5. The maximum production is 91.63% at these optimum conditions. Also, the biodiesel production is testing which include physical properties specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, water content, cloud point, pour point, and flash point and it was in good agreement with standard diesel fuel.

Design and Implementation of Remote Real-Time Monitor System for Prosthetic Limbs

Hussein A. Mansoure; Hadeel N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 60-65
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2187

Persons with Lower-limb amputations experience movement restrictions resulting in worsening their life quality. Wearable sensors are often utilized to evaluate spatial and temporal qualities and kinetic parameters that provide the mechanism to create interactive monitoring of the amputee prosthesis system. Gait events and detection of the gait phase of amputee movement are essential to control the prosthetic devices of lower limbs.  This paper presents real-time monitoring to individuals with lower limb amputation by using a medical wireless sensor. However,  the proposed system used four medical sensor nodes (such as gait, temperature, the pressure of blood, blood oxygenation (SpO2) )for transmitted medical data by the   RFB 24  to the sink node to collected data and upload by   ESP32  to the Local cloud ( Raspberry pi 4)   by using   Wi-Fi network, then design the web application for enable the doctor monitor the patient (lower-limb amputation (LLA))  and provide the reporter to on each patient,  where local cloud provides the data to the web application. The conduction of this work is using one sink node to four nodes (patient) to reduce the data rate and the energy consumption. In this work, one IP to four medical sensor nodes lowers the data rate to 60%, and the energy consumption by the sensing nodes is lowered by 20% that using one IP instead of using five IP reduce the size of the transmitted packet.

Flow Improvement and Viscosity Reduction for Crude Oil Pipelines Transportation Using Dilution and Electrical Field

Noor I. Jalal; Raheek I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Oudah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2192

One of the great challenges in pipeline transportation of heavy crude oil is the effect of viscosity on flow rate. By using viscosity reduction techniques, crude oil flow ability can be enhanced. However, the dual effect of dilution and electric fields on crude oil flow ability is still not well addressed. The main goal of this study is to reduce viscosity and improve the flow rate of heavy crude oil through pipelines using dual techniques of electrical field and dilution. The optimization technique was used to investigate the interaction effects of experimental variables on the objective function. As compared to crude oil treated solely by dilution or electrical field, the dual treatment could result in more substantial reductions in viscosity. In this experiment, at first, the dilution's impact is studied. Acetone was used as a diluent in different concentrations. The great viscosity reduction is about 21.98% when adding 20 wt. % of acetone. Secondly, when the effect of the electric field has been studied, a reduction in viscosity of about 35.6% was observed when 36.67(v/cm) is applied. Lastly, the effect of combined treatment (dilution and electric field) has been investigated according to factorial design. The optimum viscosity reduction is about 61.856% at 11 wt. % acetone and 36.67 (v/cm) of the electric field.

Manufacturing and Calibration of Conical Springs Lateral Stiffness Meter

Muhammad S. Tahir; Shakir S. Hassan; Jumaa S. Chiad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 76-81
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2201

The spring is an important mechanical part of which widely used in many industrial applications. There is an urgent need to know its stiffness property before use in any application. Since the stiffness varies according to the method of using the spring in this research, it is suggested to calculate the lateral stiffness of spring by the moment effect. the device meter of the lateral stiffness of conical springs has been designed and manufactured working principle applying a torque to the head of the spring and calculating the angle of inclination. This research includes an experimental aspect (tensile test of steel wires, manufacture of the device lateral hardness meter, manufacture of four conical springs from steel wire inspected with diameters of 3.4, 3.8, 4, and 5 mm, and testing the springs with the manufactured device). As for the simulation aspect, it comprises calculating the lateral stiffness by numerical analysis using the solid work program. After extracting the hardness values practically by the device and comparing them with simulation values, the device proved its efficiency for small diameters after the experimental results have been compared with the results of the simulation, as the error rate increased with the increase in the diameter of the spring wire, so the highest acceptable error that could be reached by the device was 5% for the diameter 4.36 mm and zero error at the diameter 1.2 mm.

Experimental Exergetic And Energetic Analysis of Different (PV) Array Configurations

Dalya A. Omer; Mahmoud M. Mahdi; Ahlam L. Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 82-89
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2052

It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) can be connected in parallel, series, and parallel series. In this study, four PV panels are connected in four different ways, i.e., 4panels parallel (4p), 3panels parallel*1panel series (3p*1s), 2panels parallel*2panels parallel (2p*2p) connected in series, and 2panels series *2panels series (2s*2s) connected in parallel, to determine the best PV panels configuration for supplying DC power to the Variable Speed Compressor (VSC) with the highest average exergy efficiency and minimum exergy losses under sunny daylight hours. Experimental data is used to calculate the exergy efficiency of the mentioned configurations. The best results are delivered by (2p*2p) configuration with average exergy efficiency of 43.77% and exergy efficiency of 88.05%. Whereas the percentage of improvement for the average exergy efficiency of this configuration compared with the (2s*2s), (4p), and (3p*1s) are (55.93%), (63.69%) and (78.9%) respectively.

A Comparative Experimental Study Analysis of Solar Based Thermoelectric Refrigerator Using Different Hot Side Heat Sink

Nora F. Numan; Mahmmoud M. Mahdi; Majida K. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 90-98
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2058

The heat sink influences heat dissipation at the hot junction of the Peltier module and, hence, affects the performance of the thermoelectric refrigerator. The present work compares the performance of solar-powered thermoelectric refrigerator units with capacity (30 Liter) for two cases by employing two different heat sink types. In case (I) The Peltier module (12706) is connected with a heat sink type of Hot wall air-cooled (HWAC). In case (II) the Same Peltier is connected with a heat sink type of hot wall air-cooled with a heat exchanger (HWACHE). The exergy analysis method can help to determine the exergy losses and exergy efficiency of the thermoelectrical refrigerator unit. Despite the change of the (COP) of the thermoelectrical refrigerator throughout the day. The average value of it in two cases was approximately (0.3). Furthermore, the exergy efficiency varied from a minimum value of (0.3%) to a maximum value (0.8%)in case (I). While it varies from the minimum value of (0.4%)to a maximum value of (1%) in case(II). Whereas the average exergy efficiency was 0.5% and 0.62% in case (I) and case (II) respectively This means that there is a percentage improvement in the average exergy efficiency of 19.4% in case (II) compared to the case (I).

Heat Transfer in Electronic Systems Printed Circuit Board: A Review

Mustafa E. Kadum; Ahmed A. Imran; Sattar Aljabair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2113

Thermal regulation has now become a staple in the design of electronic devices. As a result of technological advances in the electronic industry, component miniaturization and thermal system management are becoming more and more important. Due to the high demand for device performance and the need for better thermal management, this paper present a detailed theoretical review of heat transfer by conventional methods in electronic devices and equipment such as air cooling, water cooling, etc. to provide an ideal framework for a practical application in electronic cooling. With reference to the possibility of investing unconventional ways to reduce the energy consumed in the cooling process and preserving the environment through the possibility of replacing solid circuit boards with flexible circuits and studying their properties in improving heat transfer and deformation of P.C.B using the interaction of fluid structure under thermal and flow effects.

Experimental Investigation of Artificial Cavities Effect of Single-Phase Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Single Microchannel

Qahtan A. Al-Nakeeb; Ekhlas M. Fayyadh; Moayed R. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 109-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2122

In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to investigate the influence of artificial cavities (artificial nucleation sites, ANS) in a single microchannel on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer at a single-phase flow. The experiments were performed with deionized water as a working fluid at 30OC inlet temperature with a range (108.6-2372) of Reynolds numbers. Three models of the straight microchannel (model-1, model-2, and model-3) were manufactured of brass having a rectangular shape with a hydraulic diameter of (0.42 mm). Model-1 has a smooth surface, while model-2 has artificial cavities with a number of 40 ANS located on the base of the microchannel; along a line adjacent to one of the sidewalls. Also, the artificial cavities of model-3 exist at the base of the microchannel; along a line that is nearest to each sidewall for the microchannel. The number of ANS at each sidewall is 40 (i.e. the overall number of artificial nucleations is 80). The results manifested the enhancement of heat transfer by the presence of ANS for model-2 and model-3 as compared to model-1 by 15.53% and 16.67%, respectively. Also, the results proved that the fanning friction factor correlation for laminar and turbulent flow can predict very well the results (MAE=6.6-7.2%) and (MAE=4.1-7.7%), respectively. Also, the Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number. However, the conventional correlation that predicted the experimental results is lower than the correlations (MAE=30.1%, 13.2% and 12.6%) for Model-1, -2 and -3, respectively.

Evaluating the Adhesive Properties of Four Types of Conventional Adhesives

Muhanad H. Mosa; Mohsin N. Hamzah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2137

The development of manufacturing technology led to the appearance of various products that need effective types of adhesives with good strength and durability in different types of joints. Accordingly, the issue is how to choose the appropriate adhesive for the specific application relying on the properties of adhesive besides, the work conditions. This work deals with the experimental testing of four types of an adhesives that have been prepared to test by the two types of joints to comprehend the behavior of adhesives then choose the most effective and optimum type. The Butt and single lap joint tests were achieved according to the ASTM standard D2095–96 and D-1002-99 respectively. The adhesives that were used were epoxy Resins, MS Hybrid Polymers, Polyvinylester, and R.T.V Silicon Rubber, also, used a steel material as adherents. The study concluded important points about these adhesives and the recommendation suggested essential points to select satiable adhesive.

A-Review for the Cooling Techniques of PV/T Solar Air Collectors

Wisam H. Saleh; Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Ahlam L. Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 129-136
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2139

A solar thermal collector is one of the most popular applications of solar energy. It is a photovoltaic (PV) cell system with a thermal collector system, this system is utilized in the production of electrical energy and many applications. The system is able to produce electrical energy directly from the sunlight using the photoelectric effect. Meanwhile, it also extracts heat from the PV and heats the fluid (airflow) inside the collector. In this review, the solar PV system and solar thermal collectors are discussed. Usually, solar collectors are exposed to damage and their efficiency decreases when the temperature rises. Need constant cooling. In addition, the methods utilized to cool the solar collector are presented, including cooling with air, water, and others methods. It has been shown that the water-based cooling system was at a rate of 48%, while the air-based cooling system was at a rate of 26%, and that cooling by other methods was at a rate of 26%. These methods were applied to the enhancement of the photovoltaic cell efficiency under different conditions. The study revealed the important role being played with the application of solar energy.

Experimental and Numerical Flexural Properties of Sandwich Structure with Functionally Graded Porous Materials

Emad Njim; Sadeq H. Bakhi; Muhannad Al-Waily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 137-147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2184

Functionally graded porous materials (FGPMs) are porous structures with a porosity gradient distributed over the entire volume. They have many applications in the aerospace, marine, biomedical, automotive, and shipbuilding industries. High strength to weight and excellent energy absorption is the most important features that make these structures unique. In this paper, the flexural properties of simply-supported sandwich beams with functionally graded porous core under flexural load were evaluated experimentally and numerically based on various parameters. A three-point bending test for 3D printed sandwich specimens with porous metal core bonded with aluminum face sheets using various porosity parameters and core heights has been performed to measure the peak load and maximum deflection and explore the sandwich structure's strength. To validate the accuracy of the experimental solution, a finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out using ANSYS 2021 R1 software. Tests and FEM show that the sandwich beam behavior is closely related to porosity, power-law index, and FG porous metal core thicknesses. Experimental results indicated that at a porosity ratio of 10 %, FG core height 10 mm the maximum bending load was 573 N and maximum deflection 13.8 mm respectively. By increasing porosity to become 30% using the same geometrical parameters, the bending load was reduced by 15.4 % while the deflection exhibited a 1.4 % increase. The Numerical results for the three-point bending are compared with experimental measurements, showing a fair agreement with a maximum discrepancy of 15%.

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Adding Butanone to Gasoline in SI Engine Emissions and Performance

Abed Al-Khadhim M. Hassan; Sadeq A. Jassam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 148-158
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2207

This research is performed to study and investigate the influence of adding some ketone compounds on performance, emissions, and heat balance of spark ignition engine. The compound used in this study is butanone (C4H8O). The importance of the research lies in increasing the octane number by adding specific percentages of butanone and showing its impact on improving the combustion process, performance and reducing pollutants. This ketone has been added to the basic fuel (gasoline) with three concentration ranges (3, 6 and 9%), respectively.  All experimental tests were carried out on gasoline engine type (Nissan QG18DE), four cylinders, and 4-stroke. The acquired results showed that adding of ketones affects the physical properties of gasoline, where the density changed from (710 kg/m3) for net gasoline to (724 kg/m3) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The octane number also increased for all types of ketones compared with pure fuel, and it will be improved from (86) for pure gasoline to (93.1) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). While the calorific value will be decreased from (43000 kJ/kg) for gasoline to (41665.44) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The addition of ketones improves the emissions characteristic of the engine. The best reductions of (UHC, CO2, CO and NOx) were (47.51, 24.9, 27.35 and 35.91%), respectively recorded by butanone addition at a ratio of (9%). In the case of performance, the best increments of brake power, brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency were (14.5, 7, 14.94 and 11.64%), respectively, which is achieved by adding (9%) of butanone.

Blind Assistive System based on Real Time Object Recognition using Machine learning

Mais R. Kadhim; Bushra K. Oleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 159-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1933

Healthy people carry out their daily lives normally, but the visually impaired and the blind face difficulties in practicing their daily activities safely because they are ignorant of the organisms surrounding them.  Smart systems come as solutions to help this segment of people in a way that enables them to practice their daily activities safely as possible.  Blind assistive system using deep learning based You Only Look Once algorithm (YOLO) and Open CV library for detecting and recognizing objects in images and video streams quickly. This work implemented using python. The results gave a satisfactory performance in detecting and recognizing objects in the environment. The results obtained are the identification of the objects that the Yolo algorithm was trained on, where the persons, chairs, oven, pizza, mugs, bags, seats, etc. were identified.

Development the Mechanical Properties of the Acrylic Resin (PMMA) by Added Different Types of Nanoparticles, Used for Medical Applications

Sura H. Ahmed; Waffa M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2017

This research is studying the effect of reinforcement the acrylic resin (PMMA) by two types of nanoparticles, which included: Walnut shell (WSP) and Talc particles (TP) that practical sizes are (40.8 and 29.2 nm) in individually form, and utilize at three various concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3wt.%), to improve in the mechanical properties of composite materials. The results showed that the Tensile and Hardness shore D properties became better with increasing the concentration of nanoparticles. The highest value of (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and elongation at break) was (28 MPa. 1.28 GPa and 2.35%) for (PMMA: 0.3% WSP) composite specimens. And the highest value of hardness shore D was (77) for (PMMA: 0.3% WSP) composite specimen.

Solving Mixed-Model Assembly Lines Using a Hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization and Greedy Algorithm

Huthaifa Al-Khazraji; Sohaib Khlil; Zina Alabacy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 172-180
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2153

The assembly line balancing problem deals with the assignment of tasks to work stations. Mixed-model assembly line problem is a type of assembly line balancing problem at which two or more models of the same product are assembled sequentially at the same line. To achieve optimality and efficiency of solving this problem, tasks at each work station have to be well balanced satisfying all constraints. This paper deals with the mixed-model assembly line balancing problem (MALBP) in which the objective is to minimize the cycle time for a given number of work stations. The problem is solved by using a hybrid of an ant colony optimization and a greedy algorithm (Ant-Greedy). MATLAB Software is used to perform the proposed method. Then, the proposed method is applied to a real case problem found in the literature for the assembly line of automatic changeover in the Electronic Industries Company in Iraq. The results of the proposed method are compared with the performance of the Merging Shortest and Longest Operation (MMSLO) method. The comparison shows that the Ant-Greedy optimization method is more efficient, where the efficiency increased from 93.53% for MMSLO method to 97.26% for the Ant-Greedy method.

Effect of Machining Parameters on Surface Roughness and Metal Removal Rate for AISI 310 L Stainless Steel in WEDM

Muayad M. Ali; Abbas F. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2060

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a non-traditional machining process that is widely used in the machining of conductive materials. This paper presents the investigation on surface roughness and metal removal rate of stainless steel using the wire-cut EDM process. Process input parameters wire feed (WF), wire tension (WT), servo voltage (SV), pulse on time (TON) and pulse off time (Tuff), and the output parameters surface roughness and metal removal rate. The work piece material was used stainless steel 310 L, zinc-coated brass wire of 0.25mm diameter used as a tool and distilled water is used as dielectric fluid. ANOVA used to measure and evaluate the relative importance of different factors. Experiments are designed and analyzed using the factorial design approach. The experimental results revealed that the most important machining parameter of the pulse of time has the most influence on the metal removal rate and the surface roughness. The maximum best metal removal rate is (0.052277 g/min). When the values are somewhat medium range, they are the best and the wire does not break at this range. Wire feed (7m/min), wire tension (7 kef), servo voltage (30 V), TON (30 sic), Tuff (30 sic). The expected values and measured values are well-matched as observed by additional confirmation experiments.

The Effect of Process Parameters on the Compression Property of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Produced by 3D Printer

Sabreen A. Oudah; Hind B. Al-Attraqchi; Nassir A. Nassir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2118

Additive manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) provides an innovative manufacturing method for complex geometry components. 3D printers have become easily accessible to the public. The technology used by these 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling. The majority of these 3D printers mainly use acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) to fabricate 3D objects. This study aims to investigate the influence of some printing parameters like infill pattern (Tri-Hexagon, Zig - Zag, and Gyroid), infill density (25%, 50%, and 75%), and layer thickness (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm) on the compressive strength of ABS materials. The design of the experiment was achieved by Taguchi method. A total of nine specimens were fabricated with different processing parameters using a commercial FDM 3D printer and then were tested according to the ASTM D695 standard. Findings presented in this research showed that the compressive strength of printed parts depends on the printing parameters employed. Analysis of variance revealed that the infill density is the most sensitive parameter among the three parameters examined. The optimal printing parameters were (0.3 mm 75 %, Gyroid) for improving compression strength according to signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis. Experiment number (9) showed the highest compression strength with a value of 44.64 MPa.

The Effect of Secondary Slow on Droplets Behavior in Gas-Liquid Mixing Process Downstream of a Curved Duct

Abdulsattar J. Mohammed; Akeel A. Nazzal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 195-206
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2152

Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out on water injection in a humidification process of air traveling steadily through the curved part with a constant cross-section. A principal aim is to study the flow behavior through the curved duct and the generation of secondary flow. The effect of bend angle on the development of secondary flow and flow structure intensities and enhancement of the heat and mass transfer downstream the curved duct. Moreover, the influence of the mixing process between liquid and gas in an air humidification process was examined. Experiments were performed with an average air velocity range from (2.5 to 5 m/s) while keeping the water injection rate of (19 kg/h) through (50) cm square wind tunnel includes three bend angles of (45º, 90ºand 135º) along with three sets of nozzle tilt angles of (-45º, 0º and 45º) to the axial flow direction. The study also implies a numerical analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2019 R3 with the turbulent model of RNG using (k-ε). Experimental results showed that the optimum operating condition (greater extent of cooling and humiliation) was obtained with a bend angle of 135º at axial water injection, i.e., 0º nozzle tilt angle at the lowest air velocity of 2.5 m/s. This could be attributed to the strong identical vortices developed and better droplet distribution across the duct, and more time available for heat exchange between water droplets and the air stream. The maximum reduction in treated air temperature was 28 %, with 219% in the relative humidity of the air stream. This condition gave corresponding cooling effectiveness of 58%.      

Optimization of Design Parameters for Manufacturing a Radial Active Magnetic Bearing with 12-Poles

Mohamed N. Hamad; Muhannad Z. Khalifa; Jamal A. K. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 207-216
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2202

This research aims to design an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) after performing an optimization process via reducing the number of poles and by reducing air gap, Dia. Yoke, and Z-length (deep of model). To increase the performance of a radial Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), all particular equations of design based on the Genetic Algorithm method by using ANSYS Maxwell (Version 17.1) program of electro-magnetic have been studied. Manufacturing an active magnetic bearing standing for two counts, each one containing 12 poles instead of 16, led to a significant improvement in the performance. Some conclusions were obtained, including the complications in the control system will be reduced when they are linked in AMB. The complexities of the control system are inversely proportional to the number of poles and the model covered in this study is made of a material with good engineering and magnetic characteristics steel 37-2.

Improvement of Surface Roughness in Single Point Incremental Forming Process by the Implementation of Controlled Vibration

Reham A. Nema; Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Muthanna H. Sadoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 217-225
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2244

Vibration implementation that assists metal forming has many advantages, such as enhancement of surface equality, reducing the forming force and decreasing the stresses. The technology of single-point incremental forming with all the above-mentioned advantages has been performed with the vibration. This paper focuses on the average surface roughness (Ra) improvement of the final product by using the vibration. The average roughness was found to be affected by vibration of the sheet metal. The combination of vibration produced a better surface quality of the forming shape by using an active damper to control the vibration.  For determining the damping ratio, which gives the necessary roughness, an artificial neural network (ANN) was created based on experimental results. A feed forward neural network with Liebenberg–Marquardt back propagation algorithm was utilized for building the artificial neural network model (3-n-1). Confirmation runs were conducted for verifying the agreement between the predicted results of ANN with those of the experimental outcomes. As a result, the product surface quality is increased where the surface roughness was reduced by (18%) from the surface roughness without vibration. The best reduction rate was in the axial forming force at (100 Hz) frequency, where the reduction rate was about (11.64%) from the force without vibration.

Modeling and Simulation of Telescopic Hydraulic for Elevating Purposes

Istabraq H. Abed Al-Hady; Farag M. Mohammed; Jamal A.K. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 226-232
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2253

The hydraulic cylinder is widely used in industry as the load lifting structures. A telescopic hydraulic cylinder is a special design of a cylinder with a series of gradually smaller diameter tubes overlapping each other. Three-stage telescopic cylinder performance analysis is performed with the help of the Finite Element Method. Also, MATLAB Simulink is used to create a complete design of the dynamic model of the telescopic cylinder. The analysis results of characteristic curves for telescopic cylinder position, velocity, and acceleration show the simulation model's accuracy and plausibility. This package will provide a basic reference for analyzing and designing the hydraulic cylinders with any number of stages. Simulation results show that a sudden change of pressure upon phase change will lead to multi-phase vibration.

Electromechanical Design and Manufacturing of Dynamic Buckling Test Rig Under Various Temperature Conditions

Shaymaa M. Mshattat; Hussain J.M Al-Alkawi; Ahmed H. Reja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 233-240
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2276

A column is a structural member that bears an axial compressive load and is more likely to fail due to buckling compared to material strength. Some of these columns work at a high temperature and this temperature affects the behavior of buckling. Therefore, the designer must take this factor (temperature) into consideration. For the purpose of studying the effect of different temperatures on the phenomenon of buckling under compression dynamic loads to evaluate the state of failure for different types of columns, the thermal buckling test device has been designed and manufactured. Using this rig, practical tests can be conducted on solid and hollow columns of different metals and diameters, and thus the safe critical load for the column can be predicted. This device was successful in evaluating the life of the columns made of aluminum alloy (6061-T6) when the buckling interacts with heat. The current study found that rising the temperature increases the failure under the buckling phenomenon.

Effect of Temperature and Humidity Factors on Water Production Using Solar Energy with Smart Controlling

Ghusoon A. Aboud; Hashim A. Hussein; Ali H. Numan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 241-248
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2282

The aim of the current work is to study the effect of temperature and humidity factors on the production of water from humid air using clean energy, as we have noticed that both factors have an effective impact on the atmospheric air and on the amount of water that was obtained, which is useful in areas that do not have electric power sources or fresh water, and solar energy is used as the main source of energy in open areas. The motivation is to evaluate the performance of the system in light of different air flow rates and in different locations in Iraq depending on the experimental data obtained and the parameters related to the proposed system. We have noticed that high temperatures lead to the increase in evaporation and then to an increase in the percentage of water in the air, and the humidity factor is better in the range between (25 to 65) %, and when the relative humidity reaches 100%, the water vapor begins to condense to form dew, and the temperature is called the dew point when this occurs. Therefore, the water harvesting device was designed as a solution to reduce moisture considering it a source of drinking water, keeping in mind the main contribution which is to use solar energy, with a low cost, a work efficiency of up to 60%, and most importantly smart controlling.

Control of PV Panel System Temperature Using PID Cuckoo Search

Fadi M. Khaleel; Ibtisam A. Hasan; Mohammed J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 249-256
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2307

In this study, the PV panel behavior as a nonlinear system had been studied well. The main contribution of this work was cooling the PV panel temperature to get the optimal power using a PID-CSA controller which was never employed previously in this application. In the beginning, the system has been modeled using three artificial neural network methods which are NARX, NAR and nonlinear input output based on MSE. Then, the PID controller with the intelligent cuckoo search algorithm technique had been studied to accustom PID controller parameters () based on MSE, ASE and IAE. The results exhibited that the best modeling method was NARX with 0.2255 MSE. On the other hand, all the controlling methods were effective and showed an excellent ability to control the system; however, the best method was based on MSE with an error equal to 2.578.

Design of a Sliding Mode Controller for a Prosthetic Human Hand’s Finger

Hussein Sh. Majeed; Saleem K. Kadhim; Alaa A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 257-266
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1943

In this research paper, the modeling and control of a tendon-driven, instead of joint motors, the prosthetic finger that mimics the actual human index finger were deliberated. Firstly, the dynamic model of the prosthetic finger is developed based on a 3-degree of freedom (DOF) articulated robot structure and utilizing the Lagrange equation. Then, the classical sliding mode control (CSMC) strategy was implemented to control the finger motion. To overcome the cons of CSMC, such as the chattering problem, an adaptive sliding mode controller (ASMC) was developed.  MATLAB Simuphalange was used to perform the simulation after the necessary equations were derived. The results showed that the ASMC was superior to the CSMC in depressing the chattering and fast response.

A Modified Kalman Filter-Based Mobile Robot Position Measurement using an Accelerometer and Wheels Encoder

Ali Madhloom; Firas A. Raheem; Azad R. Kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 267-274
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2082

Position measurement is an essential process of mobile robot navigation. In this research, a Kalman Filter is applied to locating a mobile robot furnisher with an encoder and accelerometer. The accelerometer updates its position off-hand. It has an acceptable short period of stability. However, this stability will be decreased over time. The odometry model is utilized to measure the mobile robot's position and heading angle using encoders equipped with the wheels of the mobile robot. Moreover, the odometry model's errors exist because of the wheel rotating speed's integrative nature and non-systematic errors. In this work, the mobile robot position estimation in closed environments was studied. In order to obtain the optimal estimation, a Kalman filter was used to estimate mobile robots' position and velocity, where the Kalman filter has been designed for better assessment of the mobile robot position. The suggested configuration collects accelerometer and odometry reading to assure more delicate position knowledge than standalone odometry or accelerometer. The proposed method's position error has an acceptable level that is less than (0.2 m) for both easy and difficult paths.

Effect of the Waste Rubber Tires Aggregate on Some Properties of Normal Concrete

Abdul Rah; Ahmed Ali; Nahedh Mahmood; Mohammed M. Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 275-281
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2166

Waste rubber tires are considered to have substantial environmental and economic impacts, and they are non-biodegradable.  This study aims to get rid of waste tires as much as possible and study their benefits and effects on concrete using (chips and crumbs) as an aggregate substitution to fine and coarse aggregates together in making concrete (CRC) and at different percentages of (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25) % by volume. This use can reduce the risk and effect of waste tires. The tests reported a reduction in workability, compressive, and flexural values with the increase in the substitution rate of rubber. Still, other properties such as density and thermal conductivity improved. The registered highest decrease was 2013 kg/cm³ to density and 0.56 (W/m.k) to thermal conductivity with replacement of 50% from waste rubber tiers as an aggregate. The workability registered the highest decrease of 35 mm, compressive strength was 18.5 MPa, and flexural was 3.35 MPa. However, the failure of the (CRC) samples test was not as brittle and abrupt as in the control sample (NSC) in the flexural test.

Preparation of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer Foam Using a Combination of Na and K Types of Alkali Activators

mohammed S. Radhi; Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban; Imad A. Disher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 282-289
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2188

In this research, the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was mixed with metakaolin, activator, hydrogen peroxide, and olive oil to synthesize hybrid geopolymer foam. The obtained results indicated internal heat release throughout OPC hydration in the combination. OPC was employed as a calcium source in geopolymers (Geopolymer-Portland cement (HGPF)) to explore the curing process of geopolymers at ambient temperature. The functionality of geopolymer components and (HGPF) mixture, the elemental composition, and proportion analyses have been compared. A principal aim of this research focuses on developing geopolymer foam and conducting many tests such as physical tests related to the surface area and pores size and compression of the foam to investigate the capacity of applying this foam in different applications that require good strength. Furthermore, microstructure tests using SEM and XRD techniques have been conducted to examine surface structure components. Overall, the findings presented in this research show that the materials selected to develop the geopolymer foam were compatible with each other giving high porosity with acceptable compression via optimizing the processing parameters by RSM.