Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 40, Issue 3

Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2022


Research Paper

Best Conditions for Extraction and Stripping of Iron from Chloridic Aqueous Medium

Mazin. Beden; Wadood T. Mohammed; Salah A. Nema

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 433-440
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2101

Pure iron is used as an additive for food and drugs to provide the human body with an important element which is iron. For this purpose, iron should be pure and in powder form, the extraction process can supply this type of iron. In this study, extraction of iron from an aqueous solution was done by cyclohexanone as an extractant. The parameters of extraction and stripping processes were studied and assessed the best values which give a high yield of separated iron from ore or any source of iron. For the preliminary study, three general parameters were studied and the best values are agitation time (10 min.), agitation speed (400 rpm), and temperature (30C). In the main study for the extraction process, there are four parameters were investigated and the optimum values are phase ratio (O/A) (1/1), iron concentration (conversely relationship), extractant concentration (proportional relationship), and normality (5 N). The best values for stripping process parameters are phase ratio(A/O) (1/2 – 1/1) and normality of strip solution (0.1 N).  The extraction technique is very important in Pharmaceutical industries to produce different suitable metals associated with food and drugs. The extraction technique was detected as an appropriate method to separate iron and introduce it in pure powder form.

A Review of the Natural Gas Purification from Acid Gases by Membrane

Dheyaa Jasim; Thamer J. Mohammed; Mohammad F. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 441-450
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.1983

This study aims to shed light on natural gas as an important and promising energy source. This energy source is the fastest-growing source in the world due to the increasing global demand. In this paper, the rates of growth in global demand for natural gas according to the latest reports since 1984, as well as the gas specifications required for transport and storage, acid gases, including absorption, desorption, Cryogenic and separation by membranes, are discussed with the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Focusing are presented. In addition to the primary treatment processes that take place on the gas, the most important of which is the removal of acid gases. Processes for removing on the membrane separation process as the most promising process in this field and reviewing all the research that is discussed in details of this process.

Investigation of Carboxymethyl Cellulose and Barite Additives on the Corrosion Characteristics of Water-Based Drilling Mud

Rana A. Azeez; Najem Alrubaiey; Mohamed Gazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 451-458
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.1555

Drilling fluids can be considered complex liquids containing several desired materials. These materials (small additives) are specialty products that serve a specific need, such as controlling the rheological properties of the drilling fluid and reducing corrosion for operational drilling of both oil and gas wells. Additives used to resist corrosion are called corrosion inhibitors. Previous research has shown that polymers such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) have high characteristics of corrosion inhabitation in an aggressive environment.  In this study, the effect of adding two samples of additives, CMC and Barite, on the corrosion of carbon steel in Iraqi bentonite water base mud solution has been evaluated using the weight loss technique. The study focuses on determining and comparing the corrosion characteristics of these mud additives. All the experiments were carried out in static flow and at room temperature.  Results show that CMC works as a good inhibitor when added to bentonite/barite mud. The calculated corrosion rates of 0.95mpy, 0.75mpy, 0.53mpy, 0.49mpy were found for bentonite mud, bentonite/barite mud, bentonite/CMC mud, and bentonite/CMC/barite mud, respectively. This would result in an inhibitor efficiency of about 50%.

Hydrochemical and Environmental Assessment of Groundwater in Al-Yusufiyah District South-west Baghdad, Iraq

Rafal Abdulrazzaq; Tariq Abed Hussain; Ghufran F. Jumaah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 459-471
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2045

Groundwater in Yusufiyah  represents the main water source for drinking and irrigation purposes in the dry season, so this research was conducted to assess and evaluate the hydrochemistry of groundwater in this area. (15) wells were selected for sampling in this area with depth ranges between 10-20 meters. , Groundwater generally flows from east to west and from northeast to southwest.Physical parameters for water samples were measured included temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS),where the chemical parameters included major cations (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+2, and K+) and major anions (NO3-1, SO4-2,Cl-, and HCO3-).  The results indicated that groundwater in the study area isnot suitable for human drinking due to high concentrations in(CL=435 ppm), (SO4-2 =769 ppm), (HCO-3=280 ppm),(TDS=2375 ppm), and (EC=2899µc). These values exceeded the standard limits of  WHO. On the other hand, results show that this water was suitable for irrigation (good and Permissible except for well no.1,8,12,13, which wasnot suitable for all irrigation crops due to an increase in (SAR, Na) to the Don classification 1995.

Curcumin Loaded onto Magnetic Mesoporous Material MCM-41 for Controlled and Released in Drug Delivery System

Nidhal A. Atiyah; Mohammed A. Atiya; Talib M. Albayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 472-483
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2174

In this work, the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of type MCM-41 were manufactured and modified with Fe3O4 to load curcumin (CUR) CUR@Fe3O4/MCM-41 as an efficient carrier in drug delivery systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms were used to characterize the three samples: pure MCM-41, Fe3O4/MCM-41, & CUR@Fe3O4/MCM-41. Adsorption processes tests were carried out to determine the impact of various variables on the CUR load efficiency. These variables were the carrier dosage, pH, contact time, and initial CUR concentration. The maximal drug loading efficiencies (DL %) were 15.78 % and 22.98 %, respectively. According to the data, The Freundlich isotherm had a stronger correlation coefficient R2= 0.999 for MCM-41, while the Langmuir isotherm had a greater R2 of 0.9666 for Fe3O4/MCM-41. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits well with R2=0.9827 for MCM-41 and 0.9994 for Fe3O4/MCM-41. Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) with a pH of 7.4 was utilized to study CUR release behavior. According to the research, the maximum release for MCM-41 and Fe3O4/MCM-41 might be 74.1 % and 25.19 % after 72 h, respectively. Various kinetic release models were used, including First-order, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Hixson and Crowell, Higuchi, and Weibull. After 72h, the drug release data were fit using a Weibull kinetic model with an R2 of 0.944 and 0.764 for MCM-41 and Fe3O4/MCM-41, respectively.

Air-lift Reactor's Characterization via Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD): Review

Marwa M. Jasim; Thamer J. Mohammed; Laith S. Sabri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 484-497
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2261

Airlift reactors are seen as the most promising reactor for many valuable productions such as algae culturing. However, this kind of reactor still needs more information and data to understand its phenomena due to limited studies. Also, to reduce the time and offers obtained with sufficient reactor design, capable of achieving high productivities, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) could play an important role in optimizing the reactor design by analyzing the interaction of hydro-dynamics. This review presents the literature review on the recent CFD work for such a reactor that addressed the fluid dynamics parameters, such as bubble dynamics. Earlier researches find more reports utilizing uniform bubble diameter in CFD simulations. However, the latest research in the CFD modeling of multi-phase flow reactors showed that the description of the bubble has significant effects on the performance of the simulation. As a result, systematic research into the impact of bubble diameter on the simulation results of the CFD was performed. Finally, we present and discuss the CFD modeling approaches, a Governing equation such as Eulerian-Eulerian (E-E), and closure such as the drag force.

The Use of Inexpensive Sorbents to Remove Dyes from Wastewater - A Review

Firas Ahmed; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; May A. Muslim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 498-515
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2281

Dyes are utilized in various industrial applications, and some businesses' effluents include hazardous dyes. Humans, aquatic creatures, and the environment are all harmed by dyes. As a result, adequately treated dyes that manage wastewater must be before being discharged into nearby bodies of water. Adsorption has proven to be high and cost-effective in removing dyes from wastewater. The sorbent material for dye removal from industrial effluent is activated carbon, but its high cost limits massive-scale utilization. The use of cost-effective adsorbents for wastewater discharge dye elimination is discussed and analyzed in this paper. This review underlines and displays a preview of these IASs, including natural, industrial, and made-up materiality/wastes and their utilization in removing dyes. Experiments have shown that various inexpensive non-traditional adsorbents lead to effective dye removal. Accordingly, studies dealing with the search for effective and affordable sources from current resources are becoming increasingly crucial for eliminating dye. The excess desire for functional and affordable processing modes and adsorption significance has led to inexpensive alternative sorbents (IASs). The isotherm analysis and adsorption kinetics indicate that Langmuir / Freundlich, besides the pseudo-second-order model, is the most used pattern for convenient empirical adsorption datum. Low-cost by-products from the agricultural, residential, and industrial sectors have been identified as viable wastewater treatment alternatives. They make it possible to remove contaminants from wastewater while also contributing to waste minimization, recovery, and reuse. This review revealed that some IASs, have ratable adsorption capabilities and rapid kinetics, besides having vastly available.