Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 40, Issue 8 (Electrical Engineering

Volume 40, Issue 8 (Electrical Engineering, 10 Articles), August 2022

Research Paper

An Enhanced Interface Selectivity Technique to Improve the QoS for the Multi-homed Node

Haider W. Oleiwi; Nagham Saeed; Heba L. Al-Taie; Doaa Mhawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1006-1013
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133066.1165

The user’s handoff is still an arguable issue that many mobile communication systems face, especially with the exploded growth of users and internet-based applications. There is a critical need for adequate quality of service (QoS) to meet the stringent requirements. This paper aims to study the overall performance and feasibility of several QoS mechanisms with the single-homed and multi-homed networks/nodes fluctuating resource availability. It investigates the adaptability of multi-interfaced multi-homed techniques to enhance the essential governing parameters, i.e., throughput, end-to-end latency, processing time, and jitter. Moreover, the paper introduces an interface selectivity technique for the multi-homed node to adopt the optimal interface, which offers the best services to explore the enhancements of the overall network performance. The overall results show how the introduced mechanism managed to keep the communication going on the multi-homed node. Furthermore, the results show that site multi-homing provides a better overall end-to-end latency over host multi-homing as it supports the entire network.

Power Quality Examination for (250KW) PV Grid-tied Connected at Various Irradiance Levels

Ahmed A. Jasim; Dahri Y. Mahmood; Oday A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1014-1022
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.1831

Although using a PV grid-tide system has many advantages, connecting the PV to the grid creates a new challenge at the power quality level. The PV grid-tide plant (250 kW), implemented at the Iraqi ministry of electricity building, was taken as a case steady to examine the power quality issue at various irradiance levels. The plant was described in detail and built using MATLAB2018b/Simulink. The developed system was examined at various irradiance levels. The results showed that an increased irradiance level leads to an enhancement in the power quality. The total harmonic distortion (THD) decreases with the increase of irradiance. Such behavior has a good impact on the power quality, where the (THD) is considered a crucial parameter in the power quality issue and increased irradiance level, leading to increased injected power to the grid. Up to the date of writing this study, the power quality effect of the installed (250 kW) PV grid-tied system on Iraqi grid utility was not previously studied, whether for the studied system or another PV grid-tied system installed in Iraq.

The Fundamental of Reduced Graphene Oxide with Nanosilver Composite Films Using the Spin Coating Technique

Hamsa A. Alaloosi; Farah T. M. Noori; Abdulhadi K. Jidran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1023-1028
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2205

Graphene oxide synthesis by hummers method and reduction by the green chemical method using green tea. Preparation films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a spin coating method. The preparation films and Nanomaterial characteristics with X-Ray diffraction (XRD) GO has a peak at (2θ = 11.22̊ ). While rGO has a wider peak at (2θ = 26.2̊ ). The (rGO +AgNPs) films have five obvious diffraction angles. In Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), flaky sheet (rGO), and spherical (AgNPs) with Nanosize about ~20 nm, the peaks of EDX indicated the presence of Carbon, silver, and oxygen. The energy gap was calculated from the absorbance spectrum and seemed to decrease with increasing AgNPs.

The Visual Quality of Healthy Eye Lens for Different Tilt Effects

Laith A. Tawfeeq; Ali H. Al-Hamdani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 130-139
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2197

The importance and accuracy of the human visual system have led scientists and researchers to do their best to study it, know its problems, and how to treat them.
The eye lens tilt is possibly due to a specific accident such as a blow or the like. So, this manuscript was submitted to study the human eye lens tilting effect on visual performance and determine the tolerance tilt values. Using (ZEMAX-EE) software program and relying on the Liou and Brennan model Eye (LBME), one of the most accurate models for studying the eye, and some basic criteria used to describe the image formed in an optical system, such as Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Root Main Square-spot size (RMSS), and simulated image including aberration, the study of the lens tilt effect on visual quality was conducted. The calculation of the area under the MTF curve was also used to determine the tolerance tilt values. Where the lens was tilted from (-5 to 5) degrees by (1 degree) on the (X and Y) axes, for zero decentering, with visible wavelength (0.486, 0.587, 0.656) µm, pupil diameter (2.5 mm), and field of view (5o).The results were that vision worsened when the lens was tilted due to reduced MTF. Sagittal MTF was less sensitive than Tangential due to the nature of the lens structure. The area under the MTF curve results also proved that the tilt is less than (5) degrees does not affect the visual much, so it was necessary to determine the tilt tolerance values.It was concluded that the visual quality was inversely proportional to the tilt increase. Exceeding the tilt (5) degrees led to visual deterioration due to increased optical aberration where the tolerance tilt ranges were (± 5.1) degrees and (- 5.9 to 9) degrees on the (x and y) axes, respectively.

A Review of Control Technique Applied in Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF)

Ayad M. Hadi; Ekhlas M. Thjeel; Ali K. Nahar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1035-1044
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2116

In recent years, electronic transformers and electronic devices (nonlinear loads) have increased. These loads are the source of harmonics (non-sinusoidal and distorted waves) and the interactive force that affects the performance of the power system network. Also, it badly affects the power factor and electrical energy on the scales of efficiency and quality. For this reason, a system called “Active Power Filters” has been adopted. It provides an effective alternative to traditional LC passive power filters. It can improve network performance by treating and reducing harmonics, improving power factor and quality, avoiding resonance between the filter and the network, and reducing reactive power. This paper presents a study on the shunt active power filters device and how to connect it to the distribution network and A review of the bathing control strategies in the methods of calculating current and power, methods of controlling the PWM device, the most prominent techniques for improving the PID control system, and the most prominent algorithms applied in that to improve the safety performance of the  Shunt  Active Power Filter (SAPF) on the one hand and to demonstrate the ability of different systems to compensate for THD on the other hand. APF performance fluctuates from one control strategy to another. It reduced (THD) between 0.9% and 13% in several control techniques applied with PWM. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques applied to control the performance of the "Shunt Active Power Filter" to reduce THD

The Evaluation of Time-Dependent Initialization Vector Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm for Image Encryption

Hayder T. Assafli; Ivan A. Hashim; Ahmed A. Naser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 150-159
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131397.1032

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) has become an attractive encryption method for its high security and fast implementation. The encryption algorithm is approved as a standard to be used in widely used communication and data processing units However, the advance in technology and the introduction of quantum computers made the encryption scheme vulnerable to attack. Different attack procedures are continuously being developed for attacking end decrypted important and sensitive data. This paper evaluated an enhanced Advanced Encryption System operating in Cipher Block Chaining mode that suggests a promising solution for resisting future attacks. The approach depends on a time-dependent initialization vector that produces the initialization vector block depending on the epoch time without sharing any encryption key. The evaluation process includes correlation analysis, global and local Shannon entropy analysis, chi-square analysis, histogram analysis, and differential analysis. The results showed that the enhanced encryption scheme is reliable and can resist most cyber-attacks without exposing any encrypted data to the public. The results were compared with previously published and tested algorithms and found that it satisfies and exceeds the minimum requirement. So, the encryption method can be implemented safely in future communication channels or used in the file encryption process. . .

A Compact High Isolation Four Elements MIMO Antenna System for 5G Mobile Devices

Muhannad Yousif Muhsin; Jawad K Ali; Ali Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1055-1061
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131103.1004

A Compact high isolation Multi Input Multi Output Antenna system working on 3.5 GHz (3400 - 3600) MHz is presented for the 5G mobile terminals. Four-antenna elements are employed to construct the proposed MIMO antenna system. These antennas are located over two slim side-edges frame of a mobile device to meet the present trend requirements of slim and full-screen smartphone devices. A modified Hilbert fractal monopole antenna and an I-shaped feeding line construct the antenna element’s front part, while an L-shaped shorted to the system’s ground plane are used to the antenna element’s back part. The overall monopole antenna element’s size printed on the mobile frame’s side edge is (9.72 mm × 5.99 mm) so the desirable antenna miniaturization is achieved. Based on the spatial diversity and self-isolated techniques, high isolation (better than 16.3 dB) is attained by the proposed four-element MIMO antenna system. To assess the proposed antenna element’s performance, the scattering parameters, antenna gains, antenna efficiencies, and radiation pattern characteristics have been evaluated. Besides, the MEGs and ECCs are investigated to appreciate the proposed system’s MIMO performance. Desired antenna and MIMO performances are achieved by the proposed four-element MIMO antenna system so it can be a good candidate for the future 5G mobile handsets.

Build and Implement Radiation Control using IoT in Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTSC)

Sarah Bassem; Samer J. Ismael; Jalal M. Jalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1062-1070
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2240

Connecting the devices to the internet based on the internet of things IoT increases the capability of monitoring and measuring, and controlling essential variables. In this study, the radiation intensity was controlled via the internet of things IoT for PTSC to study the collector's behavior.  The light control circuit was designed, built, and implemented. The circuit mainly consists of a power supply, Arduino, relay, and potentiometer. Radiation was successfully monitored using a sensor and displayed through a smartphone via Wi-Fi, and the intensity of radiation light controls the PCM status. A data logging system was applied using a micro SD in a smartphone card and Arduino Node-MCU as a microcontroller. The experimental results show the relationship between solar radiation and resistance change. Inversely, the maximum radiation found from this work was 780 W/m2 with 74 k Ω resistance, and the minimum radiation was 300 W/m2 with 170 k Ω resistance. The output power changes directly through solar radiation, which means the power output with maximum solar radiation will be 3018 W. Using IoT Technology reduces efforts of long-time monitoring during the experiment (many hours).

High gain transformer-less inverter based-on capacitor clamping multi-phase boost converter

Oday saad; Jasim Farhoud Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1071-1081
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131337.1028

The boosting converters integrated with inverters are widespread use in many applications under transformerless inverter titles, including powered vehicles, PV systems, fuel cells systems and so on. Reliability, quality, maintainability, and reduction in size are important requirements in the energy conversion process. The multi-phase boost converter can be adopted as a good solution with high power applications. The multi-phase boost enhanced by clamping capacitor structure is providing low ripple, high gain and evident improvement in the efficiency when compared to the conventional converters.
This paper investigates the transformerless inverter based on a capacitor clamping multi-phase boost converter. High gain proposed architectures are being designed to step-up voltage. The converter features a high voltage gain offers additional solutions based on the capacitor clamping structure. The proposed architectures are being designed to optimize the gaining in popularity as they are increasing the voltage gain and the efficiency and mitigate the switching frequency effect.
The investigation of validation performance was introduced through the steady-state analysis and operation. The operation modes and mathematical analysis are presented. To validate the performance in terms of input and output ripple and values, the converters were tested using MATLAB / SIMULINK. The results supported the mathematical analysis. The voltage gains increased, reduce of ripple in input current and the output voltage is significantly detected. The switches stresses at the converter side are One-third of the output voltage.

Theory and Modeling of Slab Waveguide Based Surface Plasmon Resonance

Amnah S. Hasan; Razi J. Al-azawi; Ali A. Alwahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1082-1089
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132295.1100

 The current study proposes a developing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor that has been widely employed to detect viruses, such as environmental analytes, biological and chemical analytes, and monitoring and medical diagnostics. Optical waveguides have much potential for developing new chemical and biological sensors. Graphene is the world's most vital substance and can be used to enhance other materials. A composite silver film-based SPR sensor with the waveguide. To enhance the silver film's stability, detect the best thickness with the best resonance using different types of analyte: air than 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and water. The resonance wavelength numerically calculated, loss, sensitivity, Figure of merit FOM, and Refractive index using Lumerical FDE. The numerical data showed the differences in the electric field of SPR in the number of refractive indexes after applying the silver coating layer, and the performance parameters improved. Moreover, Graphene has much promise, yet almost most of it is still unexplored. The fundamentals of graphene-based waveguides and devices were investigated using two layers with FDE. The primary purpose of this study is to show the effective thickness of the Graphene and the analyte's refractive index to get high absorption.