Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 40, Issue 10 (Science)

Volume 40, Issue 10 (Science), October 2022

Research Paper

Preparation and Performance of PU/Cpsf Blend Ultrafiltration Membranes for Removal of Heavy Metal Ion Rejection Studies

Latha C. S.; Shanthana LakshmiD; Maheswari P.; Mohan D

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132153.1201

The performance of membranes for a specific application can be determined with the help of structural properties such as molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), morphology, and pore statistics. Heavy metal ions from aqueous streams can be separated with the help of ultrafiltration membranes. In the presence and absence of the various components of the additive poly (ethylene glycol) 600, MWCOs and pore statistics of polyurethane (PU) and carboxylated polysulfone (CPSf) blend ultrafiltration (Total Polymer Concentration = 17.5 wt %) were studied with the help of dextran of different molecular weights ranging from 19 kDa to 150 kDa. The derived pore size, porosity, and the number of pores have a remarkable relationship with the MWCO, morphology, and the flux performance of the membranes. The blend membranes rejected certain toxic divalent heavy metal ions such as copper, cadmium, nickel, and zinc by complexing them into a polymeric ligand, poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI). The effect of polymer blend compositions and additive concentrations on metal ions' rejection and permeate flux are discussed

Review Paper

A Survey on Load Balancing, Routing, and Congestion in SDN

Amthal K. Mousa; Mohammed N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132886.1150

High traffic could result in load imbalance or network congestion, which degrades the network’s performance and efficiency. Thus, it is crucial to adopt efficient routing and load balancing models to face these challenging issues. Additionally, when investigating a new approach, it is essential to consider the most important metrics to evaluate this potential approach precisely. This paper presents an intensive analysis of recently available SDN-based load balancing and routing techniques. Furthermore, the features and issues of each technique are stated. Moreover, the most important metrics that should be evaluated are statically analyzed. Also, a brief survey of available network congestion solutions is shown. Additionally, taxonomies of available load balancing, routing techniques, and congestion solutions are presented. Finally, we shed light on the trends, promising techniques, and future directions’ suggestions that could be utilized further in research. Investigating SDN-based research published by well-known academic publishers in the last six years shows that enhancing network performance and AI-based approaches are the highest investigated topics with 28% and 27%, respectively, of the total investigated issues. Other topics took lower percentages. As far as we know, this study is the first work that jointly surveys and categorizes all existing approaches in the field of decreasing delay and congestion in SDN-based networks

Research Paper

Images Enhancement Based on a New Multi-Dimensional Fractal Created by Rectangular Function

Rabab F. Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134235.1229

Digital image processing is a field that is included in many journals due to its importance and the fact that it facilitates the achievement of many scientific and engineering applications worldwide. This specialization is linked with other disciplines, whether medical, engineering, sports, and others, as it facilitates the completion of applications quickly and efficiently. Researchers have discovered and garnered notice as a promising analytic tool in image processing using the idea of fractal dimension. In this effort, a new Multi-Dimensional Fractal (MDF) in view of the rectangle function was introduced a. As an application, the MDF to improve and enhance the images was employed, and found that there is a connection between MDF and image processing, where the self-similarity property, for example, is one of several features in the new definition. Other properties are discussed in the sequel, including image noise reduction. The presence of noise is responsible for properly operating these images in various applications. Several academics have created and applied a strategy for minimizing noise in features multiplicatively throughout the last several years.  The outcomes reveal that the proposed strategy is successful. The method is based on the definition of the rectangular function (the elementary component of all digital signals, videos, and images), where this function indicates a rectangular-formed rhythm that is concentrated at the origin. For example, the suggested process received a rate of 97% for PNSR and 95% for RMSD.

Study the Effect of Laser Wavelength on ZnO Nanoparticle Characteristics Synthesized by Pulse Laser Ablation as an Antibacterial Application

Hadeel J. Imran; Kadhim A. Hubeatir; Kadhim A. Aadim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134261.1232

In recent years, biologists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers have become interested in Nano-sized particles because of their unique properties. In this paper, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using an Nd: YAG laser with 800 mJ at 1064 nm and 532 nm (the fundamental and second harmonic wavelengths). The characteristics of optical, morphological, structural, wettability and antibacterial activity have been studied. The used technique of PLAL was successful in nanoparticle formation. It was proved in color changes, which was an indication of ZnO nanoparticle formation. The optical measurements show a decrease in absorption wavelength and an increase in the band gap, an indication of the formation of quantum confinement due to nanoparticle formation. The XRD involves the formation of polycrystalline ZnO at both wavelengths. Also, the FE-SEM proved the formation of nanoparticles with a semispherical shape and little agglomeration on the surface. However, the EDX shows Zn and O in the film, which means the formation of ZnO. The low contact angle indicates high wettability, which means that the material has high biocompatibility. Finally, the antibacterial test was done on two types of bacteria (E. coli and S. aurous) and showed an antibacterial effect on both types with different NP concentrations.

The Alternative Representation of the Bipolar Sugeno Integral

Jabbar Abbas; Hossein Jafari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135012.1256

In the context of decision support systems, bi-capacities were introduced as an extension of classical capacities. Many bipolar fuzzy integrals related to the bi-capacities have been presented in recent years. One of these integrals is the Sugeno integral concerning aggregation on bipolar scales. The paper aims to build an equivalent representation of the bipolar Sugeno integral. Therefore, we first employ in this paper the framework based on a ternary-criterion set for proposing an alternative formula of the bipolar Sugeno integral to be suitable for bipolar scales.  Then, we discuss some basic properties and give an illustrative example of this representation. This representation is consistent as an extension of the representation concerning the classical capacities and aggregation on the Sugeno integral unipolar scales.

Effect of Different Parameters on Raman Scattering Released from Nb2O5 Nanostructures Prepared via PLD Technique

Evan T. Salim; Suhair R. shafeeq; Mohammed Jalal AbdulRazzaq; Mohammed H. A. Wahid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134436.1238

Due to the significance of Nb2O5 as a promising industrial and biomedical material and the importance of Raman analyses to identify nanostructural molecular responsivity for various applications, this study aims to investigate Nb2O5 molecular bands that emerged under the impact of the Raman scattering phenomenon. Besides other advantages, Raman scattering analyses can provide a further investigation of the nanostructural polycrystalline phases supporting the XRD analyses. A pulsed laser was selected as the deposition technique for Nb2O5 thin films prepared with four different parameters. The selection of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was due to the insufficient studies and investigations of Nb2O5 nanostructures prepared via this method. The deposition parameters included the laser energy per pulse, substrate temperature, laser wavelength, and the number of laser pulses. Each preparation parameter was studied in a range, and one obtained value was optimized or selected for investigating the next parameter. Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser was employed for this purpose. Orthorhombic (T-Nb2O5) and monoclinic (H-Nb2O5) were obtained and investigated. XRD analysis was incorporated to confirm the resulting Nb2O5 phases. Previous studies and observations of Niobium (V) oxide molecular Raman scattering bands were also listed for comparison purposes. The results of this study were well-agreed with the previously obtained results.

Optimization of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) for Gold/Air Interface by using Kretschmann Configuration

Yadgar H. shwan; Berun N. Ghafoor; Govar H. Hamasalih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132902.1151

The coherent oscillation of electrons at contact among a dielectric and metal when the metal is exposed to incoming plasmon is known as “surface Plasmon resonance”. To achieve the best surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signal, several aspects must be considered, including the excitation wavelength, the sort of metals used, and the thickness of the metal layer. The modification of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) depending on the thickness of metallic gold was investigated in this study. The reflection spectrum is determined as a function of metal thickness and dielectric medium (air), which is fixed in this case, and measuring the resonance angle for each size (length of the gold layer) to visualize the influence of the metal film on the resonance angle. The analysis concentrated on the impact of gold layer thickness variations on resonance angle shift. SPR's ideal thickness was discovered to be 45-50 nm. We used the spin coating method to create a thin layer. The thickness of thin films is measured by scanning the sample with an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The optimum SPR angle profile with the minimum amount of reflection and dip reflection is achieved with this film thickness. The reflectance and resonance angle performance features of gold layers were analyzed utilizing plasmonic Kretschmann configurations at a wavelength nm) in sensing media (air). In an experimental analysis of the improved surface plasmon resonance characteristics of the gold/air coupling, they also showed a significant shift in resonance angle due to the film thickness variation. Biomedical science, optics, biosensing, and medicine are just a few of the domains where the (SPR) has been applied.