Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 41, Issue 6 (Production and Metallurgy Engineering

Volume 41, Issue 6 (Production and Metallurgy Engineering, Material Engineerin), June 2023


Research Paper

Nano-structured Thin Films for Hydrogen-Permeation Barrier Applied on AISI 1018 Steel Used in Petroleum Applications

Neam F. Mohammed; Bahaa S. Mahdi; Amin D. Thamir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 6, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134357.1268

Hydrogen embrittlement is a diffusible Hydrogen that is harmful to the toughness of iron. It follows, therefore, that the harmful influence of diffusible Hydrogen can be mitigated by preventing its entry into steel. This approach was achieved by usingthree coating layersas a coating nanostructure thin layer by DC sputtering on steel structural (AISI l018) and hydrogen charging (HC) effect on uncoated and different Nano coated tensile specimens. The first layer was Titanium as a bonding layer, the second layer was TiO2 with Al2O3, and the third layer was Al2O3. Using a titanium Nano layer coating on AISI1018 steel tensile specimens increased the tensile strength from 570 to 659 MPa with 16 hours of charging, which is considered a good increase. In contrast, the elongation remained in a steady-state with little difference in values compared to changing the charging time and the coating of the double layer. Furthermore, it was found that samples coated with TiO2 and Al2O3 by the DC method had advanced hydrogen embrittlement resistance and increased tensile strength (from 565 to 680 MPa with 8 hours of charging process). Moreover, the maximum adhesion value was related to the triple layer at 596 psi, and the lowest value was 309 psi using the titanium layer alone. The coating time was 5 hours of the sputtering process for all specimens. Thecoating layers are considered a good barrier for hydrogen permeation through steel structures (AISI 1018).

Smart Robot Vision for a Pick and Place Robotic System

Momena M. Mohammed; Mohanned M. H. AL-Khafaji; Tahseen F. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 6, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2023.135966.1292

The main contribution of this paper is to develop an innovative algorithm to accurately detect and identify the shape and color of objects under various light intensities and find their location to be manipulated by a pick-and-place robotic arm. Workpieces of various shapes and colors are dispersed on the robot's work plane and manipulated according to its specifications. The proposed algorithm utilizes the HSV color model to distinguish between different object colors and shapes. The S channel is used to detect the shapes of objects. After that, a series of filters (Median, Bilateral, and Gaussian) are applied to reduce the noise of the segmented image to make the process of discovering the shape and coordinates of the objects successful. The draw-contour method is used to discover the object’s shapes. After the shape of the object is discovered, the centroid coordinates are calculated. After extensive testing on 354 images that are captured in various lighting conditions in the range of (5-7000 lux), the overall system performance of 93.83% is achieved, and the average execution time is 2.21s. Finally, we had a dependable flexible automatic pick and place system that could correctly detect and identify the objects based on their features.

Martensitic Stainless Steel Brazing by Using Ag-Cu-Ti as Active Filler Metal Alloys

Salemah A. Muhammed; Fadhel A. Hashim; Ayad K. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 6, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2023.136810.1325

Brazing fillers for joining applications are essential to advanced material design and fabrication. Several types of brazing fillers have been developed in recent decades to join similar or different engineering materials. Important parts of automotive and aircraft components, including steel, are often joined by brazing. In this study, Similar samples of martensitic stainless steel were welded by the brazing method, using effective silver-based metal alloys. The brazing welding is done in inert gas atmosphere furnaces, by placing the samples in a special container filled with argon gas during the welding period and at a flow rate (10 to 15 minutes) inside a cylindrical furnace. Three types of metal alloys (silver, copper, and titanium) with different weight ratios of Ag, Cu, and Ti were used with a fixed welding time (10 minutes) at an appropriate temperature for each joint. A set of examinations and tests were conducted to find out the microscopic structure of the bonding site and the extent of the binder overlapping with the base material.  Optical microscopy was used to study the microstructure of the weld joint. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the joint microstructure. All joints of samples exhibited continuous bonding between the base metal and the filler metal, good wetting between the surfaces, and it was also noticed that the higher the proportion of titanium, the better the wetting between the surfaces., the greater the percentage of diffusion of the filler elements and the strength of the bonding with the base metal. The use of titanium-containing fillers in brazing is good for bonding in turbine blades of martensitic steel.