Tarek Abedin; Chong Tak Yaw; Siaw Paw Koh; M.A. Hannan; Sieh Kiong Tiong; Kok Hen Chong; Ahmed N Abdalla; Kharudin Ali
The smart street-lighting system (SSLS) is a leading candidate in the smart city. By the time of the last 15 cycles, many meaningful improvements have been executed in the SSLS with the impact of the internet of things technologies and universal networking devices. Conventional smart street lighting systems are restricted to wireless sensor networks, mobile devices, and old lighting control systems. This article presents a comprehensive treatment of network designs, namely communication, control, and wireless sensor-based smart street lighting system by deploying based on their existing system architecture, and network topologies including leading with it a host of privileges. In addition, choosing the right lighting class, high-intensity discharge (HID) lights, and retrofitting lighting technologies have all been covered in detail. This paper's objective is to evaluate various control technologies that may support the many applications deployed on networked streetlights. Moreover, issues and recommendations, distinguished in this paper, will pave the route for future smart street lighting systems that promote a reliable and seamless driving experience and are energy-efficient for environmental sustainability. It is far anticipated that LoRa and Sigfox with additional gateways could be the best possible smart street lighting system options as these technologies are facilitated for long distances but with a limited data rate. It is way more suitable for lighting control compared to other protocols to control thousands of streetlights.
Raghad N. Salman; Razi J Al-azawi; A. Kadhim
The purpose of the study is to inhibit the corrosion rate using the (LSP) laser shock processing technology with an ND-YAG laser utilizing the Q-switched technique with a wavelength of 1046 nm for stainless steel 304 alloy. Laser shock processing (LSP) is a novel surface treatment approach for strengthening metal materials that use a high peak power, a brief pulse, and cold hardening. The laser parameters’ effect includes laser pulse energy and pulse repetition rate on the surface properties. The qualities of sample surfaces were investigated, including surface roughness and micro-hardness. The X-ray fluorescence technique was used to analyze the chemical composition of this alloy. The corrosion rate was measured using the polarization method. In particular, pitting corrosion was the option we picked. According to the findings, laser shock processing appears to considerably boost the micro-hardness of the LSP-treated sample. The corrosion causes a decrease in the rate. The result revealed that the corrosion current density was decreased, and the corrosion potential was shifted when the laser pulse energy and the pulse repetition rate were increased. When the laser energy was 920 mj and the pulse repetition rate was 6 Hz, we discovered the lowest rate of corrosion. Digital images are usually achieved by changing continuous signals to digital format. Many factors can affect the quality of an image, such as knowledge requirements, causing noise, low contrast, and badly-defined boundaries, among others. Specifically, we compared the results with those of the image processing.
Serhane R.; Belkhelfa N.
This paper demonstrates three SAW configurations' electrical and mechanical behaviors: a one-port resonator, a two-port resonator, and a delay line that works as temperature sensors of around 440 MHz characteristic frequencies. We investigate the sensitivity of the sensors for temperatures up to 200 °C. A linear behavior of the frequency shift versus temperature is observed; the resulting sensitivity of the sensors is evaluated at 22.74 ppm/°C for the one-port resonator, 23.17 for the two-port resonator, and 3.83 ns/°C for the delay line structure. The electromechanical coupling coefficient (k2) is 0.492 % for the delay line, 0.489 % for the one-port resonator, and 0.55% for the two-port resonator. The quality factor QFactor calculated from Y11 electrical input admittance is 2858 for the one-port resonator, 2977 for the delay line, and 2903 for the two-port resonator. The optimized piezoelectric layer thickness value, for the one port resonator, is hAlN=1.5µm.